Sunday, March 31, 2019

Food Insecurity in the United States

nourishment for thinking In tribute in the bring in turn out together States nutrient In warrantor In The coupled StatesJulie HurleyIntroductionThis paper w sickish enroll the topic of forage hazard and famish in the united States. agree to the definition approved by the 1996 World provender Summit, pabulum aegis exists whenall heap, at all condemnations, thrust physical, social and frugal accession to sufficient, safe and nutritious solid solid food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an fighting(a) and healthy life.(Simon, 2012, p. 4-5) Food insecurity therefore, is the inability to acquire seemly food in retain for all fel low-pitchedship members as the result of shortsighted resources. Food Insecurity is to a fault the official circumstance social functiond to see the United States Department of Agricultures (agribusiness) measurement for all the mathematical variations that a family or house might experience while getting i nsufficient to sufficient food. The agribusiness measures the degree to which effective food is useable and how nutritious that food actually is. So while some members of a family might be getting food virtually of the clock, some of the time some members argon getting no food, former(a)s are getting food that is non very good and sometimes no one is feeding at all. All these variations are taken into account and measured. Food unsteady households are not necessarily food insecure all of the time and food insecurity may also reflect the trade-offs a household needs to make between paying the bills and purchasing nourishmentally comely food. (NYC Food Insecurity, 2014) Not surprisingly, low-income families are more(prenominal) the likely to experience food insecurity than middle or higher income families.There are intravenous feeding dimensions to food security availability, accessibility, utilization and stability. So food insecurity occurs when there is a lack of food (n o availability) a lack of resources (no access to food) an unconventional use (no proper utilization of food) or changes in availability, accessibility or utilization (no stability with regards to food). (Simon, 2012, p. 5-8)The United States produces more food than it could ever use for domestic consumption. Yet despite the ability to produce all this food, food insecurity is still a problem in the United States. the Statesn hunger is the result of economic s thunder mugtiness, when some wad literally do not have replete funds to purchase food. however levels of income and poverty do not fully predict food insecurity. This suggests that other things (such as the ability to budget resources), are important in determining whether or not someone will be food insecure. (Gowda, Hadley, Aiello, 2012, p. 1586) In 2008, 17 million US households were considered to be food insecure.(Gowda et al., 2012, p. 1579) In 2010, household food insecurity in the US was at its highest level since measurements began in 1995.(Fram et al., 2011, p. 1114) alike in 2010, over one-fifth of U.S. fryren lived in food-insecure homes. The problem was considered serious enough at the time that President Barack Obama publicly pledged to determination child hunger by 2015.(Fram et al., 2011, p. 1114)Today, food insecurity is combated by both authorities programs and aid from the toffee-nosed sector. And while both types of aid have increase in this century, hunger eternal sleep by the government has outpaced that nominated by the underground sector.(Gowda et al., 2012, p. 1583) However, this was not al manners the case, and for legion(predicate) people by means ofout Ameri crowd out report people were essentially on their own.HistoryThe prospect of food insecurity is a constant part of the human condition and in the United States has been a concern for as long as people have been living in North America. The European colonists who first settled in North America faced the pros pect of severe hunger such(prenominal) of the time. Transplanting crops brought from Europe and travailing to grow native crops was difficult. In the earliest days of the first colonies, many settlers watched their crops fail and ultimately died of starvation or the effects of starvation. But many other settlers were saved from starvation through the generosity of Native Americans. Over time the colonists adapted and they either copied, keep or created farming methods that were successful. In the process of doing this, they discovered that the land in North America was very fertile.(Eisinger, 1998, p. 32-34)They were so successful that despite the upset environment and violence, hunger in North America was already fit less severe than the level of hunger found throughout westward Europe. Improved food security had the effect that despite the dangers of life in the colonies, by 1776 American colonists enjoyed a higher life expectancy than their European cousins. The average li fe expectancy in North America at that time was 51 age in slap-up Britain 37 years in France only 26 years.(Eisinger, 1998, p. 44) A large(p)r-than-life factor in the food security experienced by North Americans though was that in addition to good fertile land, there was also a low population level. There was also no shortage of jobs. With low unemployment levels and plenty of work, any able-bodied person was resisted from sireing from the effects plug intod with unemployment, such as low income and the resulting inability to access food.(Fogel, 2004, p. 14-15)But conditions changed by the early nineteenth century when good land (or at least access to good land) became more scarce, usually available only to those who already had with wealth. It had also sustain harder to make a living from public land or by owning and operating a small farm. Poor economic conditions forced many small farmers off their land, making them homeless person. With a growing population of homeless p eople, Americas first homeless shelters (which also provided food), were set up, called Poorhouses.(The Poorhouse, 2012) In some areas city officials would also hand out emergency hard cash to the starving to buy food, but this did not stop the overall show up in poverty or hunger. By 1850 living conditions had fallen so low that in America that life expectancy had dropped to 43 years. It is thought that by 1865, as many as 1 in 5 Americans could have been suffering from food insecurity.(Fogel, 2004, p. 36)After the Civil War, the industrial change began to change this situation to some degree. Factory jobs provided more access to income for workers and by the 1870s there was less hunger and homelessness in the U.S. Of course virtually of these jobs were low wage and workers suffered in terrible conditions, but there were more jobs to choose from (and therefore less unemployment) so that at least people could earn enough money to eat. Though these sweat shops with their bad fun ctional conditions were the engine driving the Gilded Age the overall result was that they ameliorate preservation. This in turn created even more (and better) jobs being created outside of the factories as consumers had more money to spend. One side effect however, was that life for the poorest of the poor actually got worse. Many wealthy Americans opposed the idea of government interact to help the hungry, thinking this would only create masses of lazy indolent people. They also thought that it would somehow sabotage the growth of the free market. Laissez Faire capitalist economy was thought to be the becharm response to the starving poor. But at the identical time, the private sector began to provide help to the poor by creating Americas first dope kitchens.(DePastino, 2005, p. 22)In the early twentieth century there was a revolution in farming with the origination of the first methods of mechanized market-gardening.(Janick, 2014) Ironically, although this lead to an inc rease in rural unemployment it also created a surplus of food which helped lower food wrongs in the United States. As a result, during and after the first World War (1914-1918), the United States sent about 20 million tons of food to a war ravaged Europe. And since World War I the United States has act to be a world leader for relieving hunger.(Vernon, 2007, p. 242)In the 1920s Americas economy was booming, but the stock market crash of 1929 and the corking Depression that followed reversed much of the progress that the United States had made in reducing domestic hunger. But as a result of the Great Depression, the issue of American hunger became a major issue for the government. In time both the government and the private sector responded to the needs of the American people. More private soup kitchens and bread lines were opened and the New regale program of government relief was launched. Some government programs like the kit and caboodle Progress Administration (or WPA) trie d to reduce unemployment by providing much call for jobs. Other programs tried to reduce poverty by raising wages. another(prenominal) government program, the federal official Surplus Relief Corporation tried to provide poor people with food and bought surplus food from farmers. By the 1940s the New Deal programs had remediated the economy and seemed to have bring down most of the hunger in the United States. Until the late 1960s, many Americans considered hunger in their nation to be a solved problem.(Poppendieck, 1999, p. 11) So much so that some states even ended the practice of distributing federal food surpluses for free. quite they provided an early form of food stamps but there was a price charged and since many could not pay for them, more people began to suffer from severe hunger over again.(Poppendieck, 1999, p. 10)As American society rediscovered hunger, more private charity groups opened soup kitchens and the first modern food depone was created in 1967.(Poppendi eck, 1999, p. 112) The so-called Hunger Lobby was also launched to petition politicians to improve welfare for the hungry. By 1967 senate hearings were held on hunger and in 1969 President Nixon called on Congress to end hunger in the U.S. once and for all.(Melnick, 1994, p. 311)In the 1970s, U.S. federal hunger relief grew substantially with food stamps shared free of charge. Though these efforts again helped combat food insecurity, eventually the federal government again reduced welfare spending.(Dando, 2012, 177178) The private sector again responded with grass roots relief agencies, essentially in the form of expectantger and better food buzzwords.(Dowler, 2012, p. 1)Food Insecurity InterventionsAmericas heritage of food insecurity provides an provoke look at the cycle within which food insecurity rises and falls. By now the relationship between economics and food insecurity seems passably well documented as the economy gets worse, poverty increases and with more people ex periencing poverty, more experience food insecurity. Sadly, government insurance policy, again operating in cycles, provides some initial, emergency, short term assistance but then eventually seems to blame the victims for their own deprivations and ends assistance. To be realistic about ending hunger in America, we must acknowledge that no matter how good the economy might ever get, there should always be interventions already in indue to prevent food insecurity in the first place and to provide food to the hungry in preparation for the next big economic downturn.As a nurse viewing food insecurity as a public health issue, there are cardinal types of interventions in the field of healthcare primary, endorsementary and tertiary prevention. Primary preventions try to protect healthy people from developing a problem to approach with. Secondary preventions happen after an illness has already been diagnosed, with the goals being to stymy or slow the progress of the illness. Tertia ry preventions try to help an ill patient cope with the long term issues associated with an already exiting, full pursy condition that cannot be reversed.(Primary, second-string and tertiary prevention, 2006)Primary Interventions Creating Food credential/Measuring American food insecurityCommunity food security is created through several avenues like nutrition education, public health, sustainable agriculture and anti-hunger activism. And as a modern public health issue, a primary intervention used to try and prevent food insecurity from occurring, is to token it using reliable and precise methods of measurements. With accurate statistics, policy makers and organizations can track problems before they get worse. The only way to really do this is to get statistics about what demographic is accessing food programs, and the circumstances which caused them to have to do this. The USDA is the government agency which has been tasked with tracking and fighting food insecurity and in 1 994, the USDA organized a conference to try and figure out the best way to track food insecurity. The conference identified the appropriate basis for a nationwide measure and agreed that the best way to take such a measure was with nationwide surveys.(History Background, 2014) This conference resulted in the creation of the U.S. Food Security Measurement Project (USFSMP), and current food security statistics are based on the survey measure the USFSMP developed. In 1995, the U.S. Census Bureau first carried out a field ladder of the first food security survey called the Current Population watch over Food Security Supplement. The Food Security Supplement was repeated again from 1996 to 2001 and has been continued annually ever since. Taking the data from these surveys and using the extremely sophisticated statistical techniques, USFSMP created an accurate outperform that measures the severity of deprivation in basic food needs as experienced by U.S. households.(History Backgroun d, 2014)So a major component of primary intervention is already in place by tracking and measuring food insecurity. But the second half of this prevention-oriented approach for community food security is to take those statistics and addresses a diverse range of issues such as food availability and affordability contain food marketing diet-related health problems participation in and access to Federal nutrition assistance programs ecologically sustainable agricultural production plowland preservation economic viability of rural communities economic opportunity and job security community development and social cohesion.(Food Security In The US, 2014) According to the USDA themselves, primary intervention should also support the development of long term strategies To improve access of low-income households to healthful nutritious food supplies. To increase the impudence of communities in providing for their own food needs. To promote comprehensive responses to local food, farm, and nutrition issues. (Food Security In The US, 2014)Some of these issues can be addressed flat by the USDA but some can only be address in conjunction with or solely by other government agencies and policy makers. For example, the USDA has no say in influencing economic opportunity and job security but at least it can provide other agencies that do, with feedback as to how their policies may or may not be working. It seems unrealistic to think that the USDA alone can end food insecurity and clearly the magnitude of the problem and the power it would take to prevent it is beyond the scope of the USDA as it currently exists. But at least this primary intervention is in place and can be used in the future to continue trying to prevent hunger from happening and, until preventing it completely, to act as an alarm for strengthening secondary interventions.Secondary InterventionsWhile primary interventions for food insecurity involve the policy and decision making that affects poverty in A merica, the interventions that most of us associate with food insecurity are those involving tangible hunger relief that provides food to the hungry. Modern secondary interventions include the followingFood pantries. The most car park food aid establishments in the U.S., food pantries collect food from donors and give out actual parcels of food to those in need. Although used by anyone, they are designed to help families have enough food for a a few(prenominal) meals which will be eaten at home.The food loo. The food closet has the same purpose as a food pantry, but is not big enough to be in a building of its own. The food closet will be a closet or room in something like a church and is often found in more remote communities.Soup kitchens. Soup kitchens are also called food kitchens and meal centers, all of which provide hot cooked meals for the hungry. These meals are prepared and eaten in the soup kitchen building (not at home). Soup kitchens are the second most third estat e food aid establishment in the U.S.The food bank. The food bank is the third most common food aid establishment. in the U.S. near food banks usually warehouse food and distribute it to other agencies like food pantries, instead of giving it directly to the hungry. They get their supply of foods from large farms, manufacturers, supermarkets and the federal government.Food rescue organizations also warehouse food and distribute it to other agencies but they operate on a smaller scale than food banks and get their food from different sources restaurants, smaller shops and small farms.The meshing of these organizations that provide food assistance is sometimes referred to as the Emergency Food Assistance System (EFAS).(Riches, 1986, p. 15-20)

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Tokyo City: Architecture and Agriculture

capital of lacquer City Architecture and AgricultureKostof undertakecapital of Japan metropolisThe archaic capitals of Japan, such as Fuji cont culminationa-Ky (694-710 AD), Nara (710-784 AD), and Kyoto (AD 794-1868) conformed to Tangs capital power system-planning. thus far, lawsuit of defence, the devisers of capital of Japan shunned the grid, preferring instead an irregular network of s pointts include the Edo stronghold primes. Afterwards, several parts of capital of Japan were grid-planned.The history of capital of Japan p recorded a signifi displacet role in the present architecture of capital of Japan metropolis. Tokyo faced two major destructions in its history scratch line by Great Kanto quake and firebomb during the pacific war. After the pacific war Nipponese organisation was bankrupt could not execute urban center ample re information to support the economy. Instead it embarked on infrastructural development deviation re bring inntial and moneymaking(pr enominal) urban development in the put acrosss o local actors. As a moderate unplanned cities sprang up despite deliberate efforts by the government to plan the urban center. The city planning and zoning act of 1968 aimed to take a crap a dissolution surrounded by urban and coarse overturns.Despite the government of Japan adopting the city planning and zoning act of 1968 with an intention of separation between urban and agricultural lands, this has not been fully realised.. Since the Meiji restoration Japanese cities pull in eagerly been trying to apply western planning concepts which vex a clear demarcation between urban and pastoral land use. Despite efforts to pursue this endeavor, urban periphery landscapes with an apposition of segmented agricultural lands and urban land uses has lived through the history of Japanese cities including Tokyo. Agro-activities take rear end in Tokyo in more than 900ha of land. Setagaya is one of the about agriculturally supple Tok yo wards. rough agro-activities take place at the heart of Tokyo city.Presence of agricultural land in Tokyo city interferes with grid-planning of the city. Some parts of the city argon grid-planned while others atomic number 18 not. Le Corbusier interchangeablens grid planning to the way a human being passing plays. Human beings walk on a s rise line since they have a goal and know where he is ending to. Man similarly turns at indemnify angles when he needs to.1Therefore the oftenness of cross streets is his own finish with topography having modest to do with it especially if it is a flat site. It is stepping the land with streets at right angles with each other is the opening move in solvent planning.The grid is the most common pattern of urban planning in history although its use was not uninterrupted through history. The grid is recommended as the standard scheme urban solution for different sites. It is also a means for equitable distri just nowion of land as well as easy allocation of land for trading of real estate. Straight through-streets brook defence. The concentration of nameings into blocks as in grid-planning gages defence too.One common accept with all grids is their orthogonal street pattern. This does not make grids immutable but on the contrary they can curve around irregularities on the ground without betraying its basic logic. In orthogonal street pattern, long streets be straight with short streets joining the long streets at right angle. Structures in Tokyo are organized along wide road and rail network. This is also repeated in the residential areas though in a little scale. In the residential areas houses are organized along long lanes (roji) where minor shops and restaurants can be found. These lanes are hardly accessible to vehicles.Existence of incorporate array of townspeople does not ensure and orderly extension of the town grids into the touch territories. Town grids can only be extended to the surrounding ter ritory only if the city authorities had the power to oversee development in the suburban regions. As mentioned earlier, after the devastating calamities of Great Kant earthquake and the bombing in the randomness World War remaining Japan government bankrupt. As a result, the government was concerned with infrastructural development leaving the urban development in the hands of local actors. Tokyos shimokitazawa neighbourhood is an case of citys incremental urban development. It emerged from a combination of local liberty and an infrastructural retrofitting by the Japanese government. It grew from a village with rice fields in the periphery of Edo to become and a modern urban cultural and commercial-grade hub. Today shimokitazawa has a village and antediluvian Tokyo atmosphere. The typology of Shimokitazawa is characterized by little low-rise constructions along a complex network mainly of footer streets, busy ground market activity, and tight community networks. Shimokitazawa is one of the areas of Tokyo city that presents deformed grid. essential citySome parts of Tokyo city can be referred to as constitutive(a) city. Organic cities cause spontaneously adhering to no master plan, do not enjoy improvement of designers. Alternatively organic citys growth is dependent on passage of time, the lay of land and the day to day lives of the citizens. The result of these forces is irregular non-geometric with incidences of crooked and cut streets and randomly defined open spaces.2Organic city emerges when development is left in the hands of individuals without a governing body subdividing the land in front disposing it off to the people.Spiro agrees with the fact that people have different opinions about organic cities. Some people might chose to find fault with organic city or celebrate its action-packed topography, forthcoming and flexible development of its form, and its culture characterized by communal living. He does not seem to oppose organic cities. He asserts that even planned cities present features characteristic of organic cities. The extent of look in terms of the buildings mass and varying h eight of buildings marshalled like legions along a city grid can result to bewitching characteristic of unplanned city. Spiro also argues that even the geometrical irregularity of unplanned city is a exit of grade. The streets curve stalkly but not canonical. What looks like in orderly arrangement is often a matter of straight streets sections intersecting at random angles, and their linear elements broken with frequent angulated bends.3According to Spiro planned and organic cities exist side by side e.g. Tokyo and Shimokitazawa most past towns, mainly those of metropolitan size are puzzles of premeditated and self-generated segments, diversely position or interlocked.4Organic cities may start as shantytowns on unoccupied land at the remote edges of town, or in centrally determined areas that are difficult to build up such as steep slopes, canyons, or garbage dumps.Shimokitazawa has galore(postnominal) narrow passages that are inaccessible to vehicles which give a true thought of adventure as one explores the town on foot. Second hand clothes shops selling miscellaneous items from the 70s and old animated themed toys are popular. non-homogeneous cultural festivals are held in Shimokitazawa which showcase the cultural wealth of the town. In the month of February, the town of Shimokitazawa if full of festivity. Various plays are performed in eight small theatres during the month long Shimokitazawa theatre festival. The Tengu-Matsuri festival held at the end of January or early February gives a serene and friendly appeal of Shimokitazawa. The tonic Mikoshi-Matsuri festival otherwise called the portable shrine festival is held early September.Organic cities lay both(prenominal) conceptually physically and in the middle of slums and coeval planned cities. They are a budding environment that increased in stages and spontaneously evolved over generations. Often organic cities are culturally spirited and creative dependent on local skills and cultural capital. They can provide solutions to challenges facing modern cities such as population density. Organic city are able to support high population density in an environmentally and socially sustainable way. With increase in number of vile people living in degraded urban environments organic cities have potential to shift the paradigm of urbanism. Therefore organic cities should be know as a legitimate urban form and developing it from inwardly.The grand piano mannerThe tree lay streets of Tokyo city as well as its put contribute to the citys plan grand manner. Side walks and parkways in the streets of Tokyo city are amazing. The tree- planted sidewalks and parkways give the city a sense of serenity. Some avenues have double rows of trees depending on the width of the sidewalks. For example, on Grand Avenue in South Park wher e an average 24 inch sidewalk are required, a double row of trees are planted.Road tree in Japan is thought to date binding as the middle of the eighth century when trees were planted along the roadsteadtead for the welfare of travellers. However, only after Japan opened its frontiers that it started to overhaul and indeed turning trees to be part of urban landscapes. Black pine, cherry, maple and other species were planted in Tokyo on Ginza Street in 1873. Exotic trees were first used to line the city streets in 1875 when a black locust tree was planted in Tokyo.However because of poor care most of them dried up. In 1907 the government of Japan embarked on a bountiful project of planting trees along city streets of Tokyo. Ten fast ontogeny trees were selected which included among others Trident maple, Plane tree and Ginkgos. Ginkgos was planted in front of Tokyos city hall thus was marked as a street tree in Japan. However this project suffered two major setbacks the Great Kant o quake that resulted into fires that destroyed more than half the street trees, and bombing of Japan during the Second World War. Tree planting in city streets was part of Tokyos reconstructive memory process. Even to date Ginkgos remains the preferred street tree in Tokyo. Large number of evergreen trees are planted in wide and high-speed expressways to reduce traffic noise in the surrounding residential areas. Trees creating harmony are preferred for expressways passing through un positive areas like mountain foothills. Ginkgo tree has been utilized mainly in designs that institute western landscape characteristics.Tokyo National Showa Memorial Park was created in 1983, and sits on a 450-acre parcel of land and Ginkgos forms its allee. The park was created to mark the 15th anniversary ascension of Emperor Showa. The place having been occupied by linked States Tachikawa military base, the buildings were demolished and hills rebuilt, tree planted and grasses sown to make forest s and fields.The blood of city to its natural environmentUrbanization process has led to reduction in green spaces and loss of public spaces. He present urban regeneration projects in Tokyo are aimed at converting ex-industry land and displacement land to high rise building areas. These areas relate weakly with the encompassing city areas. Currently nature scarcely exists in Tokyo.During the Edo Period, samurai residential areas were situated on the high land of the Musashi plateau, while abodes of low circle samurai and tradesmen were situated in the valleys below, making a life space for a variety of living and working areas according to the contour of the land. The Tokyo quest was visible at a distant from the roads going depressed from the high land. There were also many places where people could relish the chew of Mount Fuji. Protecting view points of various centres of attraction such as Mt. Fuji is not an important factor in Tokyo city planning. On the contrary emphasi s has inclined towards universality rather than the features of the place, and the result is stereotype city space.Like many historical cities, Tokyo is developed close to the rivers and canals.Presently, the rivers are separated from the town by perpendicular embankments, with the buildings having their backs to the contaminated rivers. Originally the ideal sites for city architecture were river banks with straight access to the pee transportation system.Relationship of the man-made to the natural contextThe relationship between manmade and the natural in Tokyo can be described as helter-skelter. The city plan does not give emphasis to visibility of natural features such as Mt. Fuji. Unlike London, where protecting the perspective of Saint Pauls duomo from several main points across the city is a key signpost for the city planning, Tokyo does not give much consideration to the view of its esteemed feature in the city.Save for a few parks at the centre of Tokyo, parks and open sp aces have reduced compared to those of ancient Edo (Tokyo). Even some of the parks cannot provide the relaxation they were mean because of noise pollution. For example, Uchibori-dori Avenue cuts across the Outer Garden of the Imperial castling which is next to Hibiya Park. The car noise creates a restless atmosphere within the park. Putting Uchibori-dori Avenue underground, and planting of Japanese black pines would create a large open space area about thirty hectares alter(prenominal) for events, outdoor stage or sporting events. This would in turn fix the business area in the core of the city which has since lost popularity on holidays.Urban fabric and monumentsTokyo city is a unique in that western or modern and ancient city planning is intertwined in the development of the city. Agricultural land is seen in the city as it is historic of Asian cities. Some people view this kind of coexistence as disorganized mainly because Japan government adopted the western style of city p lanning that makes a clear demarcation between urban and rural areas which Japan has not been able accomplished. However when looked from historic and cultural perspective, it can be understood as serving an important role in the Japanese cities and specifically in Tokyo. The agricultural land sustains their surrounding population.The urban fabric of Tokyo is often made of a soft residential core, qualified by low-rise and thickly built houses, encircled by a hard shell of taller and larger buildings alongbroad roads or railways. A new generation of needs has led to changes in building types. For example, apartments are seen to be small and their narrow staircase not providing adequate access. This has made people to migrate form apartments for better housing. The primitively neat, modern parks and greenways of the apartments have now become jungles of vegetation. Now efforts are directed towards redeveloping the apartments to attract new residents.Tokyo city has several ancient an d modern monuments. In some cases modern and ancient monuments are juxtaposed depicting western and ancient architecture evident in Tokyo city. They also depict the co-existence of western and ancient cultures. An example is Zojoji Temple located next to the Tokyo Tower.In summary Tokyo city can be described as combination grid and organic city in its urban fabric. The city planning and zoning act of 1968 intend to create a separation between urban and agricultural lands. However this attempt has failed to produce the desired results as agricultural lands are mum evident in Tokyo city. This makes Asian cities which have borrowed the European way of urban planning, including Tokyo look disorderly. As a result of combining western and ancient styles of city planning, some parts of Tokyo city are grid planned whereas others not. Although the city may look chaotic it has still been able to maintain a grand manner in its streets and open space. Tree planting along the sidewalks and par kways as well as parks such as Ueno contribute to the citys grand manner. Also contributing to the uniqueness of Tokyo city is its monuments some of which are juxtaposed both modern and ancient e.g. Zojoji Temple and Tokyo Tower.

An Analysis Of Three Theories Of Personal Identity Philosophy Essay

An Analysis Of Three Theories Of soulfulnessal Identity Philosophy seekTrying to set yourself is similar nerve-wracking to bite your possess teeth Alan Watts. Personal Identity play its role as to define gentle with quality of its own which conveys him or her a unique star. The identity of a person that is in question must be able to authorize them, and he must be identified by other people. In short, what makes John unique from Felicia? Both internal ( perspicacity) and external ( em torso) views atomic number 18 the 2 essential aspects that have to be oppositeiated by one. in that location are several general philosophical theories of this identity problem.Body opening, mortal theory and Conscious Theory give come to fit into the lacking piece of the puzzle of personal identity.The body theory is one of the theories that define personal identity. It can be defined as when Person A has a personal identity if and only if they have the alike body X. However, two problems can be found in this comment. Qualitatively, it is right to own the said(prenominal) body, but if changes happened to the body, can we still define that person as the alike one? Everyones body is definitely unalike if we were to compare at the age of 60 and 4. A nonher problem popped out on the government issue of body alteration. If Felicia becomes injured by a mine at war, and then her legs have to be amputated, is she non the same person, Felicia? Therefore, the definition of the theory is insufficient as the same body alteration is not accounted for. On the other hand, numerically, if a person lost his finger ascribable to an accident, does that finger is counted as a antithetical body? What if a scientist immovable to use another(prenominal) persons DNA to clone another person with the contract same DNA? Two people with identical body surely cannot be the same person because they are still two different people with identical body. Both of them would be livi ng totally different lives. Hence, in defining personal identity, the body theory by itself had failed to make it valid.The Soul theory will be the next common theory in defining personal identity. Similarly to the body theory Person A has a personal identity if and only if they have the same soul. The idea became a lot more(prenominal) complicated when we are trying to define a rather controversial term soul. In the faith aspect, it is thought to be spirit of a person that passes through ones body into another realm (eg. Heaven or hell). However, it is still a somber phenomenon since there is no proof that can prove its existence. For instance, when a dapple changes to grayish puffy substance, we will still say, the cloud had turned gray. In short, we still recognized it as a cloud. It is just many souls in one body. Therefore, the soul theory is also not valid as it fails in that the definiens is insufficient to define personal identity.The truest and most recognized ism the ories about personal identity are the intendedness theory. However, this theory is understand differently in three ways the experiential content, conscious self, and committed stream of consciousness theories. First on the list, the conscious self-theory he or she is said to have personal identity if they have the same self-conscious. In another words, if there is a different conscious in two people, then both of them has personal identity. At first sight, it seems like a good theory to prove personal identity. It is analogous to Descartes cogito, I appreciate therefore I am. Secondly, the consciousness of images theory is the common derivatives to the theory of consciousness. It is more easily known as the experiential content. This theory comes from the Lockes theory of having the mind blank, and accumulation from experiences. One is to have personal identity because only one person can experience at one finite space. We take twins for instance. Although they have identical bo dies, the moment they were born, they are already experiencing different moments. Therefore, both of them have personal identity because they experience different surround and see things in a different manner. The major problem is that we do not have the ability to remember every star experience in our life consciously. For instance, one can still tell another person what they have eaten three days ago but it is insurmountable for a person to tell another what they ate today subsequently 10 years. In another example, one cannot be define as having different personal identity because they were drunk and acted like another person. In other words, because the human mind has failed to consciously remember every single moment of their lives, this theory eventually is invalid.The connected stream of consciousness will be the last theory about personal identity. With its definition of a persons identity is made out of a stream of connected conscious experiences, this theory eventually h ad solved the problem of human being ineffective to remember about their experience consciously. With this theory, we will still be the same person although we are unable to remember what we have done at the age of 4 when we are 60 years old. Generally with a finite mind, conscious is affiliated in a chronological pattern. In short, we will take the river as a metaphor. If you see a river current every day, you will not be looking at the same part of the river (representing body or experiences), however you will not be able to dispute that is not a river. Hence, let say the river is personal identity. This theory almost had it all right then.Thomas Reid which is also my preferable option to the idea of personal identity disagreed with Lockes memory theory by reducing it to absurdity. Lockes theory was criticized for a few irrelevancies. First of all, I powerfully agree with what Reid hold on to. He thinks that personal identity should be determined with something that cannot be di vided into parts indivisible but not by determining by operations. He, too, stated the main problem of Lockes is his ideas are of confusing proves of another thing with itself. Officer paradox was introduced by Reid at his attempt to Lockes theory to absurdity.A U.S. author, James Baldwin once quoted, An identity seemed like it has arrived by the way when a person faces and uses his experience. Assuming that we will not be able to put everything into a complete puzzle, we are left over(p) with one choice. Pluck a rose, separate the petals one by one which each petals represents one idea. Whatever came out at the end, it is you call by your very own intuition.Rfrn

Friday, March 29, 2019

Paranormal Activities Genre Analysis Film Studies Essay

paranormal Activities Genre show upline Film Studies EssayThis essay will analyse the text of the icon clairvoyant activity 2 by victimisation the theory of paternity style and compargon it with a the older version of the like word-painting Paranormal Activities, and also The Abandoned 2006, to reach a decision about which music literary music musical music genre is nearly suitable for this text and why.Genres are use to categorize asks concord to their elements and have set convections. on that point are m any(prenominal) an(prenominal) different causes of genres wish well sci-fi, romantic, western, repugnance, comedy, etc. In this research I will be analyzing the inject Paranormal activity 2 using the theory of genre abridgment by its major elements and icons like sounds, camera view, colors, background, objects and location. For subject if we c wholly for immediate UFOs in a motion-picture show that probably manner it is a cognizance fiction character ization of the sci-fi genre. Some engages have elements of more than one genre, this is called mark genre. I have divided my research essay into several parts, start with explaining the theory and approach of genre. Genres are also sub categorized jibe to their special qualities, for example in abhorrence genre, sub-categories are The Gothic, Supernatural , Occult, ghostwriter Films, Psychological Horror, Monster Movies, Slashers, Body horror, Splatter, Gore Films, Exploitation Cinema, Video Nasties and many more (Cherry, 2009, p. 5).Genre theory is used in the study and devising of moving pictures in order to categorize the films. Genre is the type of a film or it is based on a theme for example horror , thriller , western , romance and many more. Films are ascribed to particular genre in other ways also, such as narrative, actors and director. By using genre theory we can describe the type of film (Film Studies essay on Genre, 2006). When consultations think about the we stern genre they admit that within this film category they may expect to see gun fights, horses and cowboys. A nonher example would be horror films where the audience knows everyone will die except one. The audiences who go to those films expect to see zombies, werewolves and more. They also expect certain content and a certain style of film making therefore genre is a way of colouring the film on the basis of different elements and themes (Wetjen, Deshotels, 2005).In this part of the essay I will analyze the icon Paranormal activity 2 on the basis of theory of genre. In the motion-picture show Paranormal Activity 2 the institute speaks the genre itself paranormal activities were neer proved as they are supernatural and can non be proved. Paranormal doer not in accordance with scientific laws, unnatural or something which is not normal (Coraor, 2008).The picture show Paranormal activity 2 was directed by Tod Williams and written by Oren Peli who has been a writer and director in rafts of films. He has always been more interested in writing horror and documentary. Paranormal activity 2 is a remake of the motion-picture show Paranormal activity in 2007 which was written and directed by Oren Peli. The same storyline has been used to remake this movie (Doc Films, 2007). The actors have the same name as the characters in the movie, Katie and Micah, These actors were not celebrities, and they are plotted in the movie to lead a generalised and realistic rule. There is, no supervening glory identity, no star persona, to yank us out of the fiction, to remind us simply by gravitational necessity that there must be a reality outside the fiction (Rehak, 2010).In the story of the movie we see there is a couple. Micah and Katie who just moved into stay in concert in San Diego. Starting from the first day Katie notices some spooky things misfortune in their nominate when they sleep. Micah takes it as if Katie is just joking, but when he himself notices spiritu al things run a risking in their house, he buys a handy camera to know what surpasss when they go to sleep. The very first night he doesn t live on anything in the arrangement but on the second day he perceives that the admittance opened itself at 0300 A.M when they were asleep. He sets the camera on recording every night and observes new things happening every night, but on a random night he noticed Katie got up, stood by the ingress for 3 hours then went back to bed. The things kept happening in their house and finally Katie decided to call a demonologist, who wasn t able to table service them. In the end of the film there is a scene in which Katie wakes up and goes drink down to the lounge, and just after a few seconds she screams, Micah runs down and notices that Katie was overruled by the evil and in the last scene she pull aheads Micah on the camera, the hit was so quick that it actually fills the witnesser with more solicitude. Micah dies and Katie went missing (Bu ndy, 2009), (Follett, 2009).There are some major horror elements noticed in the movie which proves the horror genre approach. Firstly I will discuss the sounds in the movie. In the movie audio is the major element. There are lots of different sounds which relate it to the horror genre. These sounds are used for creating real condemnation fingerings. The sounds used in movies for special effects or dubbing are called Foleys. Foleys used in this movie are strike sounds, heavy footsteps, screaming, melodic cues and some classical horror music. The footsteps and other unexpected sounds are in the main used to show soulfulness s presence, but when we find out there is no one around, it builds up guardianship. Same is the case of hitting sound or crash, they are mostly used to break the beauty s attention and create fear. The reason is when someone watches a hesitancy or a horror taking over they get so some(prenominal) involved into it that their eyes doesn t allow any type of interference, the component part of hitting sound is to break the concentration which keeps on increasing fear in viewers. The hitting sound is mostly used to show that something happened which is not in front of our eyes. The Music in the horror films are sounds that most of the audience recognize. A long eerie musical made using strings or horns as the victim approaches a closed door (for example), followed by a violent orchestral hit as the victim opens the door to encounter whatever is hidden behind it. This is a type of musical cue that is quite common in horror films. Whenever the audience hears this build-up, it knows that something is going to happen (H binette, 1999). The other major element of the horror genre noticed was a screaming sound, which generates a feel that something harmful happened. The yell challenges the horror movie genre s damsel in tribulation by inverting the power dynamics and charging the scream with a potency that overcomes any would-be menace (Mc Donald, 2010)Most of the paranormal activities in the movie took rear end in the night. Darkness is an important element of the horror genre and is a great deal used in horror films. Darkness is used in horror films to sustain the fear and creates the feeling of being isolated. In the darkness, things are scarce visible, so if one cannot see anything, it will create tension and fear in their mind Mortals fear Night chiefly because she brings darkness, and with it inability to see that is frustrating and terrifying (Simone).A basic handy camera has been used to give it a more personalised feel. Most of the shots in the movie were point of view shots (POV). POV shots are used to make the viewer feel as if they are looking from their own eyes make them feel a part of the film and also to show as if the viewer is looking through the eyes of a specific character. A sequence that is shot as if the viewer were looking through the eyes of a specific character. The shot is a common trick of the horror film that is, we are bitd in the position of the killer who is slowly walk up on a victim. Note that horror directors sometimes chisel with this device that is, after a building of suspense, it can also let go out that we were not in the position of the killer after all (Dino, 2002).Most of the film has been shot in a bedroom to give it a more personal feel. As in an article Peli said. only if if you set up the setting for all the horrific things in someone s bedroom then that s what you re going to be thinking about when you re lying in bed difficult to fall asleep (Anjos, 2009). This makes a person feel that it might happen when they sleep. The door in the movie is used as the medium of tension, as we can see that the door has been placed as a margin between the evil and the characters. All the activities in the movie take place in sexual relation with the door even if it is around of within. Over the deuce weeks of recordings, the demonic presence becomes st ronger every night, ranging from the doors moving and footsteps to even more scream-inducing moments (Ryder, 2009).The movie comes under the sub genre Supernatural, occult and ghost film as we can notice presence of evil in the movie which means it is related to supernatural elements like evils, etc. Films that involves interventions of spirits, ghosts, witchcrafts, devils and other entities into the real world, oft featuring uncanny elements (Cherry, 2009, p. 5).The conclusion is that genres are categories of films based on different elements and theme. The genre approach is used to analyse a movie using the genre theory. Using genre approach this research proves that locations, darkness, hitting sound, screaming, dark colours are elements of horror genre. All these elements together create tension, suspense and fear. The activities happen in the house were supernatural as they have a relation with evil spirits and so it come under the sub-genre Supernatural, occult and ghost film . Thus the research proves that the movie Paranormal Activity 2 is a Horror film with supernatural activities. In this research I have learned that all these elements together give a greater impact and complete the convention of horror genre.

The Arguments For And Against Globalization Economics Essay

The Arguments For And Against globalisation Economics EssayGlobalization is a newfangled phenomenon, which ordure be analyzed from various points of view. Roughly, we might say that globalisation is integration of regional economies, societies and cultures in a globe-spanning ne cardinalrk of communicating and cover. This consideration is part of a historical move of slap-upism which is a new outside(a) order in the context of a single reality.Globalization is sometimes used to refer specifi look fory to sparing globalization. This topic get out be let oned along the essay. However, as once was expressed by the ex-secretary of the United Nations Brutos Gali, thither is no provided iodine globalization, there atomic number 18 legion(predicate) globalizations such us technological, socio cultural, political, biologicalAn example of that not only the economic globalization exists is the creation of the Inter subject Penal Court, since the human rights be starting fe eling the effects of the globalization and it is necessary uniform and generalise the recognition of the fundamental rights of the citizenship.Globalization also refers to a process of interaction between societies and local cultures in a global culture to what we would call sociocultural globalization.Different definitionsThe word globalization is defined by different authors, official institutions and dictionaries according to their point of view. Therefore, there is not only one(a) precise meaning of this term universally throwed by everybody.On the one hand, United Nations (UN)1has defined it as an event, unavoidable in our history. It makes one world through the exchange of goods, products, information, cognition and culture. This is a result of the blackguard forward in the field of communions, transport, technology and industry.According to the World desire Group (WBG)2, the most utilized meaning for globalization is an intercontinental economic activity, which has in creased sharply. In this activity they include Foreign Direct investment funds (FDI), International Commerce and Capital Flow.However, the International Monetary Fund (IMF)3has combine both the United Nations and the World Bank Groups definition. It also talks virtually globalization in terms of FDI, Capital Flow, International Commerce and the move evolution of communication and technology. Further much than(prenominal)(prenominal), IMF specifies that sometimes globalization makes it necessary for the toyforce and knowledge to stimulate to move to some otherwise country.But, these kinds of institutions ar not the only ones who regard to give their own definition of globalization. A wide range of authors have given their opinion on the topic.For example, David Dollar4, in an interview promulgated in the World Bank Group Web, express that the economic globalization, or as he would rather use, the economic integration takes place when a country reduces or eliminates the c ommercial barriers such as custom duty, and they accept investments and trade from the rest of the world.However, Leslie Sklair5thinks that it should be seen as a new variety of capitalism, one that transc demolitions the unit of the nation- enjoin. His college, Anthony Giddens6, does not think in the same look as him. In this case, he talks about globalization as a transformation in the global market, the evolution in the communication and trade between nation-states in physical commodities, information and currency.Evolution from two different points of viewTheodore Levitt7was the creator of the word globalization. He used it for graduation time in his book called The Globalization of Markets to describe the transformation of the multinational sparing which had been taking place since 1960.However, its evolution is not clear comme il faut. approximately people say that it started in 1980s and others are in privilege of 1870s. But in either case, the bases of globalization are three special ideas, according to the Washington Consensus a severe fiscal system, privatization and the relaxation of the restrictions on thriftiness8.The World Bank Group talks about four-spot timbers in Globalizations evolution. Whereas, Leandro Snchez Zepeda, in his doctoral thesis, explains that there are five different stages. I do not have enough knowledge to decide which is more appropriate, so in the following dissever I am going to give details about the study of both thoughts.According to the WGB9, these are the stepsFrom 1870 to 1914 this period was characterized by the step forward in transport and the elimination of commercial barriers. The sum of money of exports augment almost 8% and 10% of the total population moved to another country.From 1914 to 1950 the situation was as before 1870, marked by protectionism.From 1950 to 1980 during those years, the process evolved to an economic integration between rich countries. Moreover, Europe, North America and Japa n assailable their markets.From 1980 until 2009 in this time, manufacturing increased to 80% worldwide. approximately countries, such as Brazil, India and Vietnam, amend their international commerce and the globalization made developing countries meliorate.On the other hand, Leandro Snchez Zepeda10has put forward a different opinion in his doctoral thesisFrom 1870 to 1913 this period was marked by a card in commerce due to an increase in capital and promote force.From 1913 to 1950 due to the Great Depression, the First and the Second World War international commerce decreased.From 1950 to 1973 thanks to the Bretton Woods system, global integration was strengthened.From 1973 to 1990 during these years the amount of public companies which became private increased, the pecuniary system started to be more scatter to the world, communication and transport advanced and it became international.From 1991 until today there are more free-trade areas, such as ALADI, NAFTA and ASEAN, an d the economic integration has become stronger. In line of products to previous periods, the workforce moves less(prenominal) and capital and information are pass borders.GLOBALIZATIONGlobalization itself is a continuous and dynamic process that challenges the laws of the countries in how they regulate the operation of enterprises and economic behaviour of individuals at the international level, who brook give employment to workforce unemployed and also benefit from remain irregularities and weaknesses in a particular country.It is a complex phenomenon therefore it should not surprise us that it causes different reactions in different individuals or groups. Some consider that threatens the framework of the nation state, national identity and the modern fantasy of democracy. For some, it promises a new era of riches for all, for others, it is the seduction of a consumerism that provide bankrupt morally and economically the majority.In favour of globalizationwhy economic globali zation is a good system? Advances in communication and transportation technology, combined with free-market ideology, have given goods, services and capital unprecedented mobility. For example, Northern countries want to open world markets to their goods and take advantage of abundant, squalid labour in the South. To do this, these countries use international financial institutions, such as, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group, and regional trade agreements11to compel poor countries to integrate by reducing tariffs, privatizing state enterprises and relaxing environmental and labour standards.Globalization is a phenomenon that is important to the develop of the economy in every country, due to the general opening of markets for goods and capital suggests the end of trading blocs, regional treaties and economic independence of countries but also facilitates the mightiness to solve economic needs that local players have been unable to satisfy. It makes piano the commerce between different countries and decreases the difference between developed and underdeveloped countries.Some factors in favour of globalization areGlobal economy and market, which go off lead to a better utilization of resources.Greater tycoon to maneuver compared to fluctuations in national economies.New opportunities of develop markets.Using economies of scale, it empennage reduce cost.International cooperation.Growth and mergers between companies.Privatization of public companies.International financial deregulation.Development of means of communication and transport.The free movement of capital allows a more efficient allocation of global savings and provides to emerging economies the resources to develop and promote the consolidation of a sustained and balanced growth.Globalization opens up opportunities for developed economies to improve their efficiency and productivity and allows economies in developing to improve the living standards of its population.Again st of globalizationWhen globalization was defined, it tried to minimize the impact of prohibit points and reinforce positive points.Some factors against globalization areLack of insure over markets and multinational enterprises.Increased economic social and territorial imbalances. meanness of richness and increased social inequality.Non-fulfilment of minimum labour standards. Full employment, a priority until recently, was postponed. The work has to behave as a commodity, subject to the laws of offer and demand and the production needs, without laws that safeguards smooth minimum rights.Damage to the environment.Threat to biodiversity and cultural heritage.Dominance of financial-speculative economy over real economy.Increase exploitation of infant labourControversyThe liberalization of international trade means more economic growth and welfare, such as the example of China, where foreign capital has invested heavily and the country has emerged remarkably by the effect of globali zation. But if we go to Africa, we can see that its people are sinking ever deeper into poorness and degradation of economic, social and political life. There, no one invests and the one affaire that Africa is used by Occident is for the arms business and to recover the debts they owe to developed countries.It is true that globalization encourages free trade among countries, but there are also negative consequences because some countries try to save their national markets.Companies are buying goods and services from foreign countries. Workers, who were sacked, are forced to work into the service sector, where wages and benefits are trim back. This has contributed to the deterioration of the middle kinsperson, who have been relegated to lower positions. People in the lower class have to make more efforts to climbing out of poverty due to the absence of the middle class as a stepping stone.THE PROBLEMS OF GLOBALIZATIONGlobalization is the shortest and most viable fashion for the d eveloping world to achieve political, social and intellectual modernity. Globalization is said to be the best and most effective means for the developing world to achieve comprehensive development, because it is the sole way to progress for this world economically. ever-changing the world to the better is through applying globalization.There are problems in the process of globalization if other countries produce goods better than other, maybe a fix of citizens from this last country will be sacked if one state collects less tax, companies could go there to get more profit. The process of globalization entails adjustments in national and international economies, to which countries must adapt.Income distribution in many cases goods are produced in a nation through the importation of them is less restricted. The removal of import barriers may cause a substitution of goods produced inwardly the country by others imported. This way, domestic manufacturers are affected. However, the eli mination of trade barriers can make a product cheaper, which is an advantage for consumers because they can buy more with the same funds.On the other hand, globalization promotes the concentration and the emergence of big(a) multinational companies. The speculation of selling its products worldwide and reduce production be through exploitation of economies of scale, cause that small businesses reducing their sales potential. This can result in the reduction of global competition and that one or a few companies dominate the market.Evade national law the possibility of settling in any country encourages companies to look for those where production cost are lower. As the laws of many countries may increase costs for businesses, they taste countries which have less legal regulation. In fact, there are territories in which companies dont pay taxes for the profit. They prefer to settle there, due to they can pay high returns to their shareholders.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Anger and Violence in Of Mice and Men Essays -- literary Analysis, stei

In Of Mice and Men, exasperation and violence is of common recurrence. Anger, as shown by many characters, is alship canal around because of fear, jealousy and anxiety. Lennie is always the source of this anger, whether it be toward him, because of him, or from him. One of the first characters to portray anger in pot Steinbecks Novel is George, Lennies companion. Straight away in the Novel, anger is shown towards Lennie, Georges anger is because Lennie wants something they do not have, and because it is Lennie who is pleading, George is Expected to have it. This is only due to Lennies innocence. George tells him, head we aint got no ketchup his anger is clearly turn out of frustration, as he goes on to talk about how he could do Whatever the brilliance he liked if Lennie wasnt around. I could maturate my 50 bucks at the abolish of the month and go sit in a cat ingleside and enjoy myself, but no, Im stuck with you. George is almost saying that Lennie is a burden to him and tha t if Lennie were to countenance George alone, then George would have a more relaxed look. All of this anger that George is bad to Lennie is because George is frustrated at not being able to further his life in a way in which he wants to.Also George and Lennie (and alone the other spreadhead workers) have a dream, when this dream is broken and depart never happen, all of the workers get angry and violent to others on the ranch showing their frustration and how they will never get a sense experience of security, comfort or companions. The first example we see of this, is when Carlson bullies Curley in forcing Curley to permit his dog be killed and gotten rid of because He aint no good to you, Candy. An he aint no good to himself. Carlson thumbs historic and in-charge, just like he wanted to be (... ...e barn is because she had a chance to achieve ein truththing she wanted fame, fortune and glamour and because she fails at bonnie an actress and spends her life with a man sh e hates with only glamour of the three she wanted, she gets very angry and when people do not pay attention to her, such(prenominal) as when Lennie, Candy and Crooks atomic number 18 all in Crooks room and she goes thither for attention but is told to go away she resorts to anger telling them that she could get them strung up on a tree so voiced it aint even funny and this showing that she can no longer be turned away by people and takes out years of agony of her dream never coming true on these three guys.As seen in the Novel, most acts of anger and violence are down to failed dreams and hope, with the one or two exceptions and that they are both ways of letting how you feel known and a way to make you feel better.

Caesar :: essays research papers

Many people associate the &8216Ides of March&8217 with the play &8220Julius Caesar. That cross day, March 15th in 44 BC, Rome lost not only a future king, but also a surd political and military leader. Julius Caesar&8217s life, his accomplishments, and his unfortunate assassination have graven out a place in textbooks worldwide. Caesar&8217s childhood was fill up with many changes in the Roman Empire.Gaius Julius Caesar was born in Rome, Italy on July twelfth or 13th in the year 100 BC. When he was young, Caesar lived with one of the most horrifying decades in the history of the urban center of Rome. The city was assaulted twice and captured by Roman armies, first in 87 BC by the leaders of the populares, his Uncle Marius and Cinna. Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had matrimonial Cinna&8217s daughter Cornelia. The sanction attack upon the city was carried out by Marius&8217 enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, in 82 BC on Sulla&8217s return from the East. The arrogat ion of property resulted from the massacre of political opponents on each occasion. At the snip of Caesar&8217s birth, the number of patricians was small, and their status no longer provided political advantage. (Sahlman). Caesar&8217s family was part of Rome&8217s original aristocracy, although they were neither rich nor influential. (Sahlman). Caesar&8217s father died when Caesar was only 16 years old. It was Caesar&8217s mother, Aurelia, who proved to allure young Caesar. (Sahlman). With his mother&8217s blessing, Caesar sought out to gain credit for his family name.To obtain distinction for himself and his family, Caesar sought election to public office. In 86 BC, Caesar was appointed flamen dialis with the help of his uncle by marriage, Gaius Marius. (Sahlman). In 84 BC Caesar married Cornelia, daughter of Lucious Cornelius Cinna. (Sahlman). In 82 BC Caesar was ordered to divorce his married woman by Lucious Cornelius Sulla, an enemy of the radicals. (Sahlman). Caesar trave led to Rhodes in 78 BC to interpret rhetoric and did not return until 73 BC. (Sahlman). During his journey to Rhodes pirates managed to capture him. Caesar convinced(p) his captors to raise his ransom, which increased his prestige. He then raised a oceanic force, overcame his captors, and had them crucified. In 69 or 68 BC Caesar was elected quaestor. (Sahlman). His wife died shortly thereafter. Soon after his wife&8217s death, Caesar met and fell in love with Pompeia, a relative of Caesar&8217s then friend, Pompey.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and Medicines Essay

The Oceans - A Storehouse of Undiscovered Drugs and MedicinesThe health of human populations requires a wide class of chemical and physical supports from both local ecosystems and from the global ecosystem. The subject of this cover is the indirect relationship between biodiversity and human health, particularly with regard to precious red coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs are the most diverse ecosystems in the sea. towering diversity density gives rise to in exse species competition and the subsequent organism capability to construct exotic defensive and offensive chemicals, many with pharmacological value (Adey 2000). It is estimated that less than ten percent of reef biodiversity is currently known, and only a small fraction of that percentage has been tested for active compounds. However, coral reefs face numerous hazards and threats, both natural and anthropogenic. Current estimates note that ten percent of all coral reefs are degraded beyond recovery. xxx percent are in critical condition and may devolve within ten to twenty years. Experts predict that if current pressures are allowed to ride out unabated, sixty percent of the worlds coral reefs may weary completely by 2050 (Hazards to Coral Reefs). Many species that exist only in coral reef ecosystems will likely become extinct in the coming decades, and the pharmacological potential that these species hold will be scattered forever.Most of the drugs in use today have come from nature. troika common examples include aspirin, morphine, and penicillin. In the old days you could wander well-nigh a corn field or up in a forest, take little dirt samples, bring them back to the laband what do you know? Youd found microorganisms that produce streptomycin, or actinomycin, or... ...icles/june_03/marine_pharmacology.pdfHazards to Coral Reefs. 18 Jan. 2004. NOAA. .Kerr, Russell, Drugs from the Sea Will the Next Penicillin Come from a Sponge?. . marine Pharmaceuticals. .Mestel, Rosie. Drugs from the Sea. Discover March 1999.Rayl, A.J.S. Oceans Medicine Chests of the Future? The Scientist 27 Sept. 1999. .---. Reaping Pharmacological Benefits from the Oceans. The Scientist 11 Oct. 1999. .Small, A., Adey, W., and Spoon, D., 1998, Are Current Estimates of Coral Reef Biodiversity Too Low? The catch up with Through the Window of a Microcosm. Atoll. Research Bulletin, 458, 1-20.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Rocketry :: Essays Papers

Rocketry, the use of rocket power as a actuation mechanism, has changed the boundaries of mans domain.Before the advent of expeditious rocket power, space shoot was seen as an impossibility and exclusively the subject of science fiction stories.The spirit of rocket power changed in the early twentieth century when a man named Robert Hutchings Goddard focused his research and his entire life on economical rocket propulsion.Rocket power had been thought of long before Goddards time, alone he was the beginning to have success with it. The earliest record of rocket propulsion dates to 1232 CE from China.Chinese Chronicles of the battle of Kai-Feng make mention of a fleeting fiery arrow that was used during battles with telling effect against invading Mongol hordes (xiii Goddard & Pendray).This object was a form of what we now call fireworks that was packaged with more propellant.During the middle ages, other objects were adapted from the Chinese invention in galore(postnominal) other countries and were also used as a weapon to confuse, and to a lesser extent attack, the enemy.This practice was continued into the late eighteen hundreds. Rocketry did not progress greatly for a long time after its first uses.The next large evokement came from Hermann Ganswindt (1856-1934) of Germany.Ganswindt was a failed lawyer whose real love was for science.He predicted rocket propulsion in theory and made the first target that was sound in principle in 1891.Ganswindt proposed his ideas to the German War Ministry, further was sadly rejected and was looked on as a non-professional scientist trying to do professional work.He had made the underlying theory that is used in juvenile space ships, but the theory was too far in advance of his time for it to be understood(23 Gartmann).Subsequently, Ganswindt had no success or betterment in the field and lost all his money in the event of World War I preceding his death in 1934. Sir Isaac newtons laws of doubt had been crea te and widely known for quite around time by this point, but Konstantin Tsiolkovski saw that the third law of motion provided the mechanism for successful rocket propulsion in space.In 1898, Tsiolkovski completed and published The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Rocket.The book meticulously and purely set forth the calculations associated with rocket propulsion.This act was the mathematical quantification of rocketry.When the calculations are examined, the physics of the propulsion showed that a liquid fuel, as opposed to a unattackable or composite propellant, would prove to be a more efficient power source and Tsiolkovski asserted that a liquid fuel would be necessary.

The Long Road To Manhood :: essays papers

The Long Road To ManhoodWhile most stack might think that bonnie a human race is much easier than becoming a woman, this is not true of all cultures around the world. According to Gil much, becoming a man is problematic (1990). Accordingly, in some cultures, such as the Sambia of New Guinea and the Samburu commonwealth in Africa, becoming a man constitutes a tremendous amount of rituals. In other cultures, such as the Mundurucu tribe of Brazil, becoming a man, while a lot more complicated than becoming a woman, is not as ritualistic as the Sambia and the Samburu. In most of the societies discussed in class, the road to manhood involves such rituals as circumcision, blood letting, and living in seclusion for a period of several(prenominal) years. The Samburu tribe of Africa force their sons to soak up in several rituals, on their pilgrimage to becoming men. Samburu males must pass through a complicated serial of age-sets and age-grades by which their growing maturity and responsibility as men in the light of these tribal values ar publicly acknowledged (Gilmore, 1331990). The introductory initiation into manhood is the circumcision ceremony, which is preformed at the age of fourteen to fifteen. The young boys of the Samburu tribe are letn away from their mothers after the circumcision ceremony, and sent out onto their excursion to manhood. There are a series of different ceremonies that the boys must engage in before they are allowed to move onto the next level of their trip. Their voyage ends after about twelve years, in which the boys have proved themselves as men, by successfully completing all the different tasks asked of them, they are allowed to take on wives and start their own families. However, the tests of manhood are not extra to the rituals in which the young boys engage in. Even after completing the rituals, a man must always prove his manhood to the others in the tribe. The Sambia, which are similar to the Samburu tribe i n their manhood rituals, engage in a major(ip)ity of the same acts in regards to the transforming young boys into men. However, while circumcision is a major role for the initiation into manhood, the Sambia believe that in order for a boy to start maturing as a male, he must swallow semen. The Sambia are firmly convinced that manhood is an artificially induced stat that must be forcibly foisted onto hesitant young boys by ritual means (Gilmore, 147 1990).

Monday, March 25, 2019

Regaining Control in Anna Karenina Essay -- Tolstoy Anna Karenina Essa

redress Control in Anna Karenina Anna Karenina features significant clusters of scenes, all told of which describe notable moments in the development of the novels major figures. One of the most important clusters is when Anna travels to see Vronsky. On her way her perceptions change she throws her searchlight upon herself. Arriving at the next station she sees the rails and knows what moldiness be done. Anna has had control over her own life steern away from her, due to the societal limitations on her choices as a woman. She becomes resentful of the rescript she lives in, and turns that frustration on the unsympathetic Vronsky, who retains his own freedom as healthy as control over her own happiness. She is too proud and perfervid to live in subordination, as Dolly Oblonsky does. Anna cannot conceive of going on indefinitely as she has been, and at the same time can take no pleasure from contemplation of her past, or her future, which holds no prospect of change. intent tra pped and untrue to her own unwanted desires, she begins to see the entire instauration as a wretched trust populated by miserable, entrapped individuals mediocre like herself. Through death alone, she feels she can secure a place in Vronskys heart. Death is also the only decision that she is free to stomach out on her own. The place that Anna occupies is like that of a child, making up tasks for herself to fill the time, while others make the decisions that affect her life. Anna tries to interest herself with educating the English girl, make-up a childrens book, but these are all distractions from the fact that she has nowhere to go. Oblonsky and Karenin outfit to try to settle the question of Annas future, without inviting Anna to plead for herself or otherwise a... ...bout whether or not the maidservant will remember to put clean sheets on the guests beds. But neither of these womens roles are true to her own desires. To stay on this earth is to place control of her life i n the hands of a man whom she is not certain loves her. Annas decision is incomprehensible to Madame Vronsky Can you check these desperate passions? (812). But from our view of Annas mental landscape, we can understand them all too well. Works CitedJahn, Gary R. The Images of the Railroad in Anna Karenina, Slavic and East European Journal 2 (1981) 1-10.Mandelker, Amy. Feminist Criticism and Anna Karenina. Tolstoy Studies Journal III (1990) 82-103Nitze, capital of Minnesota H. & Foreword. The Complete Idiots Guide to Leo Tolstoy. London Henry Z. Walck, 1994.Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina. Trans. Joel Carmichael. Toronto Bantam Books, 1960.

military supply chain Essays -- essays research papers

Considering that the hosts logistical building hasnt had a study amelioratement in over 60 years, the idea of streamlining and consolidating systems would be a welcome and much essential change. I currently work in the ammunition house for the U.S. Army and keep d integrity so for the previous(prenominal) 18 years. The changes that the Marines are beginning to go for leave alone help to set down up resources and cuff funds that could be used for other projects.With the attacks of 9-11, more of the army logisticians agnize that we were non destroyed with what we had begun in 1991. They also realized that in that respect had to be a mitigate way to support the force. I deployed with the Army in Desert push and was witness to hundreds of containers arriving at the docking facility overseas with no idea of what was inside. The alvirtuoso option was to open the containers, parentage the contents and figure out who needed it nigh. In the ammunition field the though t is that you can never commence too much. Unfortunately this was non the grimace as when we gear upd to go steady we were forced to destroy and sink thousands of short tons of ammunition that was not used and could not be shipped back to the states. This could have been avoided if the military had a more modern inwardness of lookling its inventories.The changes that the Marines are implementing have surrendered them to get to massive benefits (Sapient n.d.)A spare support structure that will excess up 1800 marines from logistics duties and make them obtainable for other purposesFaster deployment capability get outing from a 20 portion to 70 percent decline in the tunnage it needs to shipA one-time reduction in inventory of 45 percent to61 percent blood cost saving of $125 billion to $180 million every yearA 35 percent to 50 percent reduction in order-cycle time for products and servicesI believe that these changes are coarse overdue and will continue to allow the U. S. military to be the most feared military force in the tale of man. In the past the military was expected to dig in and prepare to fight the long fight. This was alright at the time because the military was rivet on only one enemy and continued to fight... ... systems of all branches of military were able to communicate effectively, this would result in a more expeditious and stronger work force. One of the major implications that could be felt through the political science supply world is the potentiality loss of income. As it stands right now, there are over cc separate systems. Each of these systems requires operators and equipment. If the number of systems is cut in half to 100, how will the suddenly unemployed react? It has been my feature in the government that a job that would normally require one person to complete, is given two or three people. This type of player and waste is what will be the major obstacle for the government to outmatch if they truly want to improve the supply chain in the military.REFERENCESEwalt, D. M. & Hayes, M., (2002, family 30). Supply-chain management Pinpoint control InformationWeek. Manhasset, 16-19Hyland, T. (2002, Oct.). Logistics is not supply chain management. merchant marine & Distribution. Cleveland, 32-35.Sapient Modernizing Military Logistics USMC case study, (n.d.) Sapient corporate website. Accessed 10 horrible 2005 at http// military supply chain Essays -- essays research cover Considering that the militarys logistical structure hasnt had a major improvement in over 60 years, the idea of streamlining and consolidating systems would be a welcome and much needed change. I currently work in the ammunition field for the U.S. Army and have done so for the past 18 years. The changes that the Marines are beginning to implement will help to free up resources and cut funds that could be used for other projects.With the attacks of 9-11, many of the military lo gisticians realized that we were not finished with what we had begun in 1991. They also realized that there had to be a better way to support the force. I deployed with the Army in Desert Storm and was witness to hundreds of containers arriving at the pier overseas with no idea of what was inside. The only option was to open the containers, inventory the contents and figure out who needed it most. In the ammunition field the thought is that you can never have too much. Unfortunately this was not the case as when we prepared to leave we were forced to destroy and bury thousands of short tons of ammunition that was not used and could not be shipped back to the states. This could have been avoided if the military had a more modern means of controlling its inventories.The changes that the Marines are implementing have allowed them to achieve massive benefits (Sapient n.d.)A leaner support structure that will free up 1800 marines from logistics duties and make them available for other pu rposesFaster deployment capability resulting from a 20 percent to 70 percent reduction in the tonnage it needs to shipA one-time reduction in inventory of 45 percent to61 percent Inventory cost saving of $125 million to $180 million every yearA 35 percent to 50 percent reduction in order-cycle time for products and servicesI believe that these changes are long overdue and will continue to allow the U. S. military to be the most feared military force in the history of man. In the past the military was expected to dig in and prepare to fight the long fight. This was alright at the time because the military was focused on only one enemy and continued to fight... ... systems of all branches of military were able to communicate effectively, this would result in a more efficient and stronger work force. One of the major implications that could be felt through the government supply world is the potential loss of income. As it stands right now, there are over 200 separate systems. Each of these systems requires operators and equipment. If the number of systems is cut in half to 100, how will the suddenly unemployed react? It has been my experience in the government that a job that would normally require one person to complete, is given two or three people. This type of fraud and waste is what will be the major obstacle for the government to overcome if they truly want to improve the supply chain in the military.REFERENCESEwalt, D. M. & Hayes, M., (2002, Sep 30). Supply-chain management Pinpoint control InformationWeek. Manhasset, 16-19Hyland, T. (2002, Oct.). Logistics is not supply chain management.Transportation & Distribution. Cleveland, 32-35.Sapient Modernizing Military Logistics USMC case study, (n.d.) Sapient corporate website. Accessed 10 August 2005 at http//

Alcohol Abuse: Alcoholism as a Disease Essay -- Health Addiction

The line of alcohol abuse has been recognized for thousands of years, just only more recently put on we begun to see alcohol dependency as a treatable disorder. According to the incorrupt ailment ride of Alcoholism, familiar use of alcohol can be identified as a disease. Websters Dictionary defines the concept of disease as follows Any departure from health presenting marked symptoms malady unsoundness disorder. Therefore, as many occurrences of alcohol excess get up such symptoms, it is somewhat understandable that drunkenness is classified as a disease. The Classical Disease Model appears to offer a hopeful option. Treatment and dispassionateness can allow people to lead fulfilling lives. Adjacent to the notion of potomania as ain failure or moral deterioration, the Classical Disease Model appears to be a more desirable concept as it provides a motive for the alcoholic to seek intervention and gain sympathy, minimizing personal guilt. As alcoholism is seen as a pro gressive and, to an extent, hereditary illness for which those afflicted are not accountable, victims avoid being ostracized from society (Jellinek, 1960). Labeling the trouble as a disease allows the medical profession to take responsibility for the treatment of alcoholism, which puts the problem in a more favourable light than if it were in the hands of psychologists or social workers, thus detaching the blade connected with the problem while it is put on a par with other diseases such as diabetes or cancer. However, critics of the Classical Disease Model believe blemish helps reduce alcohol problems and aids the alcoholic. Any effort to reduce the stigma which is faced by the alcoholic will reduce pressures to moderate use and could have the additional ... ... the alcoholic of responsibility for their problem. Labeling an alcohol problem as a disease is perhaps as stigmatising as the problem itself and could have the effect of dissuading many problem drinkers from seeking he lp. It focuses mainly on those whose boozing has become excessive and is thus restrictive. The Classical Disease Model may appear convenient for alcoholics who want to deny they have a problem, to that extent it is likely to do more harm to the individual and the community than good, and so it is clear to see why, in the 21st Century, the Classical Disease Model is viewed as entirely inadequate. Works CitedJellinek, E. M. (1960.) The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. New Haven, Conn. College and University Press. Lender, M. E. (1979). Jellineks typology of alcoholism Some historical antecedents.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 10(5), 361-375.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

The Use of Oils in Sacraments Essay -- Bible Christianity Sacrament Ri

The Use of Oils in SacramentsGo, then, to all peoples everywhere and make them my disciples christen them in the name of the Father, the Son and the dedicated Spirit Many of the eucharists that are celebrated today involve the use of oil. Baptism and confirmation are the two principle sacraments involving oils. In the Church liturgies, the actual significance of oil is practically not known (or at least not fully) to the members of the parish faith community. This news report will examine the meaning of oil, the sacraments in which it is use, and prayers associated with it.There are tether oils that are used in various sacraments chrisom, Oil of Infirm, and the Oil of the Sick. The troika oils are all equally important however, an emphasis of sorts has been placed on the Sacred Chrism and the Oil of Infirm. The first sacrament, which will be examined, is baptism. The sacrament of baptism is most commonly associated with newborn children. The newborns (or adults) are new mem bers of the Church, and new members of the dead body of Christ. As with any sacrament, there is a standard procedure to take when the sacrament is administered. Oil is not introduced in the ordinance of Baptism until after the global intercessions, to introduce either the oiling with the oil of catechumens, or the laying on of hands. The oil is one of the most significant items used in the celebration of the sacrament. Jesus, himself, particularly encouraged children to be baptized, Let the children come to me, and do not hitch them, because the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. During the time of Jesus, oil was used primarily used to show royalty at this point in time, kings were the only anointed ones. The completion of the sacrament consists, first, of the anointment with chrism, which signifies the royal priesthood of the baptized and registration into the company of the people of God . Clearly, Chrism has a very respectable meaning in the celebration of baptism. Two thousand years ago, the Chrism was a sign of royalty and the tradition has carried on to today, where the royalty are liquid anointed.The Church encourages that baptism be celebrated before the entire faith community. Baptisms commonly take place during the Sunday liturgy. During the actual anointing of the candidates the celebrant says we anoint you with the oil of salvation in the name of Christ ... form of anointing. The anointing is always to fortify the recipient. take also solidifies the body and soul, which are temples of the Holy Spirit.WORKS CITEDBenedict XIV, Ep. Ex quo primum tempore 52 Benedicti XIV -- Bullarium, v. 3 (Prati, 1847) 320.Bouley, Adam, Catholic Rites Today Abridged Texts For Students.Collegeville, MN The Liturgical Press 1992, 164.Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. 18, 33 PG 33, 1056.Epistolae Pontificae ad Concilium Florentinum spectantes, G. Hoffman, ed., Concilium Florentinum v. 1, ser. A, part 2 (Rome, 1944) 128.Mark 1014Sacramentary - Anointing impertinent the Mass, Anointing, 124Sacramentary -- A, Order Of A Baptism Celebrated By the Minister, 17Sacramentary -- A, Structure of the Rite of Baptizing Children, 3 Sacramentary -- B, Prayer of Exorcism and Anointing Before Baptism, 50 Sacramentary - Rite of Confirmation Within the Mass, The Anointing With Chrism, 27Sacramentary - Ordination of a Priest, Anointing of Hands, 24Sacramentary - Anointing Outside the Mass, Anointing, 124Tertullian, De resurrectione mortuorum 8, 3CCL 2, 931.Trent, Unctione, ch. 2 Denz-Schon 1696

W.B. Yeats Poetry Essay -- W.B. Yeats Poet Poem Essays

W.B. Yeats Poetry many a nonher(prenominal) literary critics have observed that over the course of W. B. Yeats poetic career, readers stand perceive a distinct change in the style of his writing. about notably, he appears to adopt a far more cynical note of hand in the poems he generated in the later half of his keep than in his earlier pastoral works. This somewhat depressing trend is often attributed to the event that he is simply becoming more conservative and pessimistic in his declining years, but in truth it represents a far more momentous change in his life. Throughout Yeats career, the poet is constantly trying to settle simply what inspires him early on, in such poems as The Lake Isle of Innisfree and The Wild Swans at Coole, Yeats obviously looks towards nature to find his muse, thereby generating idyllic pastoral panorama that is reminiscent of the nature-based poetry of Wordsworth. However, his later works are darkened not by his own perspective, but by the f act that he is no longer certain that nature is truly the fountain that he taps for inspiration. A number of his later poems, such as Leda and the Swan and The fair Animals Desertion, employ symbolism and metaphor in order to reflect the indites battle to find his professedly source. Yeats spends his career dealing with this conflict, and he eventually concludes that while nature itself may have been the source of the general ideas for many of his poems, the works themselves came to life only after he reached into the depths of his look and sought the fuel of pure human emotions and experiences. Ultimately, he discovers that the only true inspiration comes from the trivial and mundane influences found in everyday life the purest poetic inspiration is humanity itself.... ...ho came before him. To accomplish this, he had to determine where to find inspiration beyond, and thereby stronger than, nature. He ultimately realizes that he was feel at this inspiration the entire ti me without actually seeing it. It does therefore lie in the deep hearts core, where he at last discovers the foul rag-and-bone shop of the heart.Primary SourcesM.H. Abrams et al, eds. The zero(prenominal)ton Anthology of English Literature, 7th ed. NY Norton, 2000. Pgs. 2092-2120.Secondary SourcesGayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Principles of the spirit Continuity in Yeatss Poetry. MLN, Vol. 83, No. 6, Comparative Literature. (Dec., 1968).David Ward. Yeatss Conflicts With His Audience, 1897-1917. ELH, Vol. 49, No. 1. (Spring, 1982).Virginia Pruitt. Return from Byzantium W.B. Yeats and The Tower. ELH, Vol. 47, No. 1. (Spring, 1980).

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Organizational Strategy and Structure of Unilever Essay -- Business St

organisational Strategy and Structure of UnileverIntroductionUnilever is one of the largest package consumer goods companies specializing in hundreds of different brands. Unilever is based in Holland and the UK and is jointly owned by Unilever N.V and Unilever PLC. Both companies have the same mature of directors but operate as a single entity and list there stock separately. In 2000, Unilever restructured their board of directors by electing new faces to the board and seeing other key members retire, analogous Jan Peelen and Robert Philips. Miles and Snow stated that there are four types of organizational strategies pursued by companies Defenders, Prospectors, Analyzers and Reactors. Unilever are a company that uses the Prospectors organization type. Prospectors are organizations which intimately continually search for grocery store opportunities, and they regularly experiment with potential responses to emergent environmental trends, in particular when Vis was appointed to t he Food Executive delegacy and began to emphasize more on environmental and sustainable development in response to changing trends and demands by consumers giving these consumers greater confidence. (Miles & Snow pp29)In my discussion, the main types of organizational strategies and structures will be listed and how they have impacted on Unilevers improved performance and addition in recent years.Organizational strategies and structures, and there impact on Unilevers performanceRestructured Approach1. Identifying commercialize opportunitiesA key part of an organizational strategy is to identify market opportunities by finding a niche or a respite in the marketplace that they can pursue to take their company forwards of all their competitors. An organiz... ...ification as we move towards our destination IT architecture, and further strengthen our world(a) market presence said Neil Cameron, chief information officer at Unilever. Unilevers steady underlying improvement in Europe h as continued, with 2.8% growth in the year. The fourth quarter was particularly strong, at 5.5%, against a weaker comparator. The Americas were up by 4.1% in the year, with Brazil and Mexico improving through the year, while the US grew solidly at 3.2%. Asia Africa has shown consistent, broad-based growth across countries and categories throughout the year, up by 11.1%. This demonstrates that merging with world(prenominal)ised technologically advanced companies such as SAS, and using their expertise, is compensable dividends for Unilever. (Unilevers Annual Report, 2007) (Drinks Business Review, Unilever selects SAP as standard for global IT Strategy, May 2007)

Option For Prosperity :: essays papers

Option For ProsperityIn an move on information age economy, life epoch earning prospects depend on the quality of discipline more(prenominal) than ever before. Americans are free to make decisions about their health, college knowledge and welfare. We can choose what to eat, how to exercise, whom to marry and which candidate deserves our vote. All of these choices shape us into the people we are today. The growing trend in foot directed minorren demonstrates that parents are utilizing their freedom of choice in order to help improve their childs education. It is hard to ignore indictment of the nations academically underachieving, morally irresolute, disorderly, and often scary public schools (Anderson). Home schooling is a necessary option because it is more flexible than public schools, it tailors learning to the ask of the children, and it provides a stable environment for a well-rounded education. Todays public schools are engulfed so much in a undertake curriculum, ins tructors are there to inform other than teach. Home schooling gives families more flexibility with teaching their children. Most home schooling students spend their time at libraries, museums, factories, nursing homes, churches, community colleges, a parks department, or elsewhere (Lines). These varieties of opportunities for students to experience positively broaden their adolescent minds. Familiarities with knowledgeable occurrences outside of the classroom help shape childrens understanding of the world. Those people who are against the at home learning process feel that it deprives the children of interactions necessary for learning. However, with the freedom from a nine-hour school day, kids have the possibility to venture and actually experience the books quite of just reading them. For example, John was able to go to Africa with his grandfather for twain weeks and we did non worry about him missing schoolsouthern Africa was his school (Sale). Most home school ed students do not have the opportunity to go to Africa but, there are always possibilities opposed to spending much of 1s youth inside brick buildings. Other bene satisfys of being schooled at home are that the learning process can be tailored to fit the students needs. Under the strict curriculum in which public schools provide, the government determines the thousand that students have to learn. It is a known fact that there are not two children alike so how is it possible to teach them all the resembling way.