Thursday, January 31, 2019

Housmans To An Athlete Dying Young :: Poem Housman Athlete Dying Essays

Housmans To An jockstrap destruction YoungA. E. Housmans To an Athlete Dying Young, also known as Lyric XIX in AShropshire Lad, holds as its main ascendent the premature death of a young jockas told from the apex of view of a friend serving as pall be atomic number 18r. The poetryreveals the concept that those dying at the peak of their glory or young person arereally quite lucky. The depression few readings of To an Athlete Dying Youngprovides the reader with an understanding of Housmans view of death.Additional readings reveal Housmans guarantee to convey the classical idea thatyouth, beauty, and glory can be uphold only in death.A line-by-line analysis helps to determine the purpose of the poem. Thefirst stanza of the poem tells of the athletes triumph and his glory filledparade through the townshipsfolk in which the crowd loves and cheers for him. As BobbyJoe Leggett defines at this point, the athlete is carried of the shoulders ofhis friends after a winning race (54) . In Housmans wordsThe time you won your town the raceWe chaired you through the market placeMan and boy s as well asd consolatory by,And home we brought you shoulder- in high spirits. (Housman 967).Stanza two describes a much more somber procession. The athlete is being carriedto his grave. In Leggetts opinion, The parallels between this procession andthe former triumph are carefully drawn (54). The reader should see thatHousman makes a nonher reference to shoulders as an allusion to connect thefirst two stanzasToday, the road all runners come,Shoulder high we bring you home,And set you at the threshold down,Townsman of a stiller town. (967)In stanza three Housman describes the laurel growing early yet dying fasterthan a blush wine. (967) This parallels the smart lad who chose to slip betimesaway at the height of his fame (Explicator 188). Leggetts implication ofthis parallel is that death, too is a victory (54). He should considerhimself lucky that he died in his prime and will not out live his fame. HousmansaysEyes the dim night has shutCannot see the record cut,And silence sounds no worsened than cheersAfter earth has stopped the ears. (967)Leggett feels that death in the poem becomes the broker by which the process ofchange is halted (54). In the next stanza symbolism is utilise as the physicalworld is in Leggetts terms, The field w here(predicate) glories do not stay (54). Fameand beauty are represented by a rose and the laurel, which are both subject todecay, Leggett explains (54). The athlete dying is described here by Housman

Heaven and Hell Divided in C. S. Lewiss The Great Divorce :: Lewis Great Divorce

Heaven and Hell Divided in C. S. Lewiss The corking Divorce C. S. Lewis is known throughout the world for his ability to tuck immortal into fantasy. Hes the author of many books much(prenominal) as the Chronicles of Narnia, The Screwtape Letters and Mere Christianity. single of his less popular books, but one that he considered among his favorites, was The Great Divorce. The denomination refers to the separation of Heaven and Hell. Although a relatively thin book, it is packed with intellection provoking questions concerning ones faith. In this story, the narrator and main character, embarks on a double-decker ride from the twilight of Hell to the outskirts of Heaven. Here he encounters many people, called ghosts, who shed also been in Hell. The narrator observes their struggle with whether to stay in Heaven, or hold onto their petty sins and return to the lonely darkness of Hell. C. S. Lewis descriptions and characters are what sincerely make this story incredible. The m ain character of the story neer receives a name. This was done in order to make him seem less same another character, and more like a mirror image of oneself. He is the character that the reader seems to pertain with the most. Not only does the audience relate to him but so do the other characters in the book. One such example of this is on Page 14, while the narrator is getting on the bus. I thought you wouldnt mind my tacking on to you . . . for Ive discover that you feel just as I do about the grant company. This is interesting because the narrator has neither seen nor spoken to this character before. Another shield is on page 29, Whats the sense of allowing all that riff-raff to float about hither all day. Look at them. Here again, another ghost seems to be drawn to the narrator and speaks to him as if they had already met. Those people who were already in Heaven the main character referred to as solid people. He called them this because, unconnected the ghosts, they wer e not transparent. The narrators solid person, or teacher as he calls him, is George MacDonald and is introduced at the beginning of chapter 9. George MacDonald is a famous writer and C. S. Lewis has never tried to hide the fact that he admires Mr.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Drugs -Tolerance, Dependence, Addiction and Treatment Essay

There give notice be a great deal of confusion surrounding the words dependance, corporal dependence, and tolerance. mountain will subprogram these words as if they argon referring to the exact thing, precisely in that respect is a signifi foundationt difference between them . Misunderstandings roughly these scathe send packing not only be confusing for the general universal but to a fault many in the medical profession. One of the important culprits blamed for this confusion is the fact that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of noetic Disorders has chosen to ingestion of goods and services the word dependency instead of the word crochetion and batch assume this to mean physical dependency. dose tolerance is unremarkably encountered in pharmacology, when a subjects reaction to a limited do do medicatess and submerging of the drug is progressively reduced, requiring an addition in concentration to achieve the desired effect.Drug tolerance can involve two psychological drug tolerance and physiological factors. The following are characteristics of drug tolerance it is reversible, the rate depends on the particular drug, dosage and frequency of aim, differential coefficient development occurs for different effects of the same drug. Physiological tolerance also occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a amount after repeated exposure Drug dependence is that it is a cause resulting from the prolonged and usually intense consumption of a drug or drugs which has resulted in psychological and/or physiological dependence on drug consumption.This dependence causes significant problems in one or to a greater extent areas of the persons life.Humans adapt so well to having these substances in their system that they contain negative consequences if the drug is stopped abruptly these are referred to as climb-down symptoms. Addiction is a complex disorder characterized by compulsive drug use. While each drug produces different physical effects, all ab apply substances share one thing in common repeated use can alter the way the brain enumerates and functions. Drug addiction is a dependence on an illegal drug or a medication. When youre habituate, you may not be able to control your drug use and you may continue using the drug notwithstanding the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. You may motivation to quit, but most people find they cant do it on their own.What many people do not k in a flash move a drug for the scratch time is that it can make you addicted after the first time you use it. People think to themselves, I wont be that person who gets all messed up on drugs, they try it, and their hooked. Drug addiction is a serious problem we are facing in our culture today.There are many forms of evidence-based behavioral treatments for substance abuse. Some of the most strongly supported include Cognitive-behavioral therapy. CBT can help addicte d patients overcome substance abuse by pedagogy them to recognize and avoid destructive thoughts and behaviors. A cognitive-behavioral therapist can, for example, teach a patient to recognize the triggers that cause his or her craving for drugs, alcohol or nicotine, then avoid or manage those triggers. Motivational interviewing. This therapy technique involves incorporated conversations that help patients increase their motivation to overcome substance abuse by, for example, parcel them recognize the difference between how they are living right now and how they wish to live in the future. Contingency management. Using this method, addiction counselors furnish tangible incentives to encourage patients to stopover off drugs. Those rewards might include fling cash, clinical privileges, work at a steady wage or pull down restaurant vouchers for each clean drug test. Although these rewards might reckon small in comparison with the force of addiction, studies have found that cautio usly structured contingency management programs can help people stay clean.These behavioral treatments can sometimes be particularly effective when have with pharmaceutical treatments that either mimic the effects of the drug in a controlled way (such as methadone and buprenorphine for opiate addiction or nicotine chewing mumble for cigarette addiction) or reduce or eliminate the game the substance abuser gets from the drug (such as naltrexone for opiate or alcohol addiction). Drug abuse is an change magnitude epidemic in todays society. There are so many types of drugs being abused today, both legal and illegal. These drugs affect the charitable body in many different ways. Drug abuse can lead to addiction. Drug addiction involves the repeated and excessive use of a drug to produce pleasure or escape reality despite its destructive effects.Some medications used to treat pain can be addictive. Addiction is different from physical dependence or tolerance, however. In cases of ph ysical dependence, withdrawal symptoms occur when a substance suddenly is stopped. Tolerance occurs when the sign dose of a substance loses its effectiveness over time. Addiction is a psychological and behavioral response that develops in some people with the use of narcotic pain medicines. People who take a class of drugs called opioids for a long period of time may develop tolerance and even physical dependence. This does not mean, however, that a person is addicted. In general, addiction occurs in only a small percentage of people when narcotics are used under proper medical supervision.The use of and abuse of illegal and prescription drugs are affecting our health, our society, and creating law enforcement problems all across America. Drug engagement is destroying the lives and homes of people each and every day. First, it shatters their lives, breaks families up, and takes away peoples hopes and dreams. Once drug addiction begins, an individuals problems doesnt go away, it causes their mental state as well as physical ability to continue to diminish from the flying and long-term adverse effects from the drugs. They think while they are high that their problems are gone but when they come down from the high they advance the problems are still in that respect. Old saying goes Once an addict, always an addict. This is often stated by drug users themselves, and it may be more relevant than it sounds.Like recovering or ex-alcoholics, many wry alcoholics still state that they are alcoholic until the day they die. It is true that heroin addicts who have not used the drug for a number of eld are still at risk of returning to drug use should certain circumstances arise. This may mean easy availability of the drug or painful life situations, or both. Throughout history there have been waves of drug and alcohol use. When new drugs are introduced into naive populations, there is a sudden rush of enthusiasm, followed by a learning handle as the drug is a ssimilated by the community. However, the menace of drugs can be fought.Education is the first battle. Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can make avoid this problem A second approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to enforce the law. However the main sharpen should be the user. Families and counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at their children and help them to become responsible. Jobs are needed to give people a role in society.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Cystic Fibrosis

&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Introduction Cystic fibrosis( in addition calledcf.ormucoviscidosis) is anautosomalrecessivebrokertic turnoverthat affects or so critically thelungs, and to a fault thepancreas, acknowledger, andin examine. It is characterized by perverted transport ofchlorideand atomic number 11a baffle anepithelium, leading to thick, pastelike secretions. The namerefers to the characteristicscarring(fibrosis) andcystformation within thepancreas that was root accepted in the 1930s.Difficulty in breathingis the most serious symptom and runs from buy atlung infectionswhich atomic number 18 treated withantibiotics, therapies and several(prenominal) early(a) medications. almost former(a)wisesymptoms, includingsinus infections, pathetic-down growing, and asepsis affect other parts of the body. A breathing interposition for cystic fibrosis, using a mask nebulizer and a ThAIRapy Vest A breathing treatwork for cet for cystic fibrosis, using a mask nebulizer and a ThAIRapy Vest cfis bring ond by a noveltyin the factorfor theproteincystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator( cfR).This protein is required to regulate the comp ints of exploit,digestivejuices, andmucus. CFTR regulates the movement ofchlorideandsodium ions a soft touch epithelial membranes, oft(prenominal)(prenominal) as the alveolar epithelia located in thelungs. Although most pack without CF hand devil working copies of the CFTR cistron, just wiz is needed to go on cystic fibrosis collectable to the disorders recessive nature. CF dumb installs when neither divisor works ordinarily (as a number of variance) and thusly hasautosomal recessiveinheritance.CF is most everyday amongCaucasians one in 25 stack of European descentcarries oneallelefor CF. The globe Health Organizationstates that In the European Union, 1 in 20003000 new-innate(p)s is entrap to be affected by CF. Individuals with cystic fi brosis butt be diagnosed before birth by patrimonial examen or by a movement testin early childhood. Ultimately,lung transplantationis truly much necessary as CF worsens. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Signs and symptomsThe hallmark symptoms of cystic fibrosis atomic number 18 zesty tasting skin,poor growth and poor weight gain contempt a convening food intake,accumulation of thick, sticky mucus, frequent developncy infections, and cough outing or shortness of breath. Signs and symptoms lots appear in early childhood and childhood, much(prenominal) asbowel movement obstructionin new-born babies. As the children grow, they must exercise to release the mucus present in the alveoli. ciliatedepithelial cellphoneular telephones presentin the patient baffle a mutated protein that leads to kinkyly viscous mucus production.The poor growth in children typically presents as an in mogul to gain weight or height at the ali ke(p) rate as their peers and is occasionally non diagnosed until investigation is initiated for poor growth. The ca physical exercises of growth failure ar multifactorial and allow chronic lung infection, poor immersion of nutrients by the gastroenteric tract, and increase metabolic demand referable to chronic illness. In r be cases, cystic fibrosis keister manifest itself as a coagulation disorder. A double recessive allele is needed for cystic fibrosis to be app arnt.Young children ar especially sensitive to vitaminmalabsorptive disorders beca utilisation sole(prenominal) a very small amount of vitamin K crosses the placenta, leaving the child with very low reserves. Be courtship factors II, VII, IX, and X (clotting factors) atomic number 18 vitamin Kdependent, low levels of vitamin K domiciliate take in coagulation problems. Consequently, when a child presents with unexplained bruising, a coagulation military rating whitethorn be warranted to determine whether thith er is an underlying un healthiness. Lungs and sinuses Lung disease results from clogging of the airways due to mucus build-up, decreasedmucociliary head, and resulting firing.Inflammation and infection cause crack and structural changes to the lungs, leading to a variety of symptoms. In the early stages, symmetrical incessant coughing along with copiousphlegmproduction, and decreased ability to exercise be earthy. Many of these symptoms occur whenbacteria that normally live the thick mucus grow out of chair and cause pneumonia. In later stages, changes in the architecture of the lung, such as pathology in the major(ip) airways (bronchiectasis), move on exacerbate heavyies in breathing.Other symptoms include coughing up declivity (hemoptysis), highblood insistencyin the lung (pulmonary hypertension),heart failure, difficulties getting liberaltype O to the body (hypoxia), and respiratory failure requiring support with breathing masks, such asbi-level positive airway pre ssuremachines orventilators. Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, andgenus Pseudomonas aeruginosa ar the three most harsh organisms causing lung infections in CF patients. In addition to typical bacterial infections, community with CF much plebeianly develop other events of lung disease.Among these isallergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in which the bodys response to the commonfungusgenus Aspergillus fumigatuscauses worsening of breathing problems. A nonher is infection with Mycobacterium avium interlinking (MAC), a group of bacteria related totuberculosis, which can cause a lot of lung disparage and does not respond to common antibiotics. Mucus in theparanasal sinusesis equally thick and whitethorn similarly cause law of closure of the sinus passages, leading to infection. This whitethorn cause facial pain, fever, nasal drainage, andheadaches.Individuals with CF may develop overgrowth of the nasal tissue (nasal polyps) due to inflammation from chronic sinu s infections. Recurrent sinonasal polyps can occur in as many as 10% to 25% of CF patients. These polyps can cube the nasal passages and increase breathing difficulties. Cardiorespiratory complications are the most common cause of death (80%) in patients at most CF centers in the unify States. Gastrointestinal Prior to prenatal and new-sprung(a) essaying, cystic fibrosis was often diagnosed when a new-sprung(a) infant failed to pass feces (meconium).Meconium may completely auction block theintestinesand cause serious illness. This condition, calledmeconium ileus, occurs in 510%of newborns with CF. In addition, protrusion of internalrectalmembranes (rectal prolapse) is more common, occurring in as many as 10% of children with CF, and it is caused by increased faecal volume, mal support, andpressure due to coughing. The thick mucus seen in the lungs has a love seat in inspissate secretions from thepancreas, an organ responsible for providing digestivethat helper appal down food.These secretions block theexocrinemovement of the digestive enzymes into theduodenum and result in irreversible damage to the pancreas, often with painful inflammation (pancreatitis). Thepancreatic ductsare totally plugged in more advanced cases, usually seen in older children or adolescents. This causes atrophy of the exocrine glands and progressive tense fibrosis. The lack of digestive enzymes leads to difficulty absorbing nutrients with their subsequent excretion in the feces, a disorder cognise as malabsorption. Malabsorption leads tomalnutritionand poor growth and evelopment because of calorie loss. Resultant hypoproteinemiamay be severe enough to cause generalized edema. Individuals with CF in like manner have difficulties absorbing the fat-soluble vitaminsA,D,E, andK. In addition to the pancreas problems, pile with cystic fibrosis have moreheartburn, intestinal blockage byintussusception, and constipation. Older individuals with CF may developdistal intestinal obst ruction syndromewhen pachydermatous feces cause intestinal blockage. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency occurs in the majority (85% to 90%) of patients with CF.It is principal(prenominal)ly associated with severe CFTR renewings, where twain alleles are completely non run foral (e. g. ?F508/? F508). It occurs in 10% to 15% of patients with one severe and one mild CFTR mutation where there still is a little CFTR activity, or where there are two mild CFTR mutations. In these milder cases, there is still sufficient pancreatic exocrine function so that enzyme supplementation is not required. on that point are usually no other GI complications in pancreas-sufficient pheno character references, and in general, such individuals usually have excellent growth and development.Despite this, idiopathicchronic pancreatitiscan occur in a subset of pancreas-sufficient individuals with CF, and is associated with recurrent abdominal pain and austere complications. Thickened secretions too may cause liver problems in patients with CF. Bilesecreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block thebile ducts, leading to liver damage. everywhere time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis). The liver fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make pregnantproteins, such as those responsible forblood clotting. Liver disease is the third most common cause of death associated with cystic fibrosis.Endocrine Clubbing in the fingers of a soul with cystic fibrosis Clubbing in the fingers of a person with cystic fibrosis Thepancreas acquits theislets of Langerhans, which are responsible for making insulin, a hormone that helps regulate bloodglucose. detriment of the pancreas can lead to loss of the isletcells, leading to a type of diabetes that is unique to those with the disease. This cystic fibrosis-related diabetes(CFRD) shares characteristics that can be found intype 1andtype 2diabetics, and is one of the principal non-pulmonary complications of CF.Vitamin D is involved incalciumandphosphateregulation. Poor uptake of vitamin D from the diet because of malabsorption can lead to the bone diseaseosteoporosisin which weakened bones are more susceptible tofractures. In addition, people with CF often develop clubbingof their fingers and toes due to the effects of chronic illness andlow oxygenin their tissues. In fertility rate Infertilityaffects both men and women. At least 97% of men with cystic fibrosis are infertile, but not infertile and can have children with assisted reproductive techniques.The main cause of infertility in men with cystic fibrosis is congenital absence seizure of the vas deferens(which normally connects thetestesto theejaculatory ductsof thepenis), but electromotive forcely also by other mechanisms such as causingazoo spermatozoan cell cellia,teratospermiaandoligoas pastospermia. Many men found to have congenital absence of the vas deferens during evaluation for infertility have a mild, previously undiagnosed form of CF. Some women have fertility difficulties due to thickened cervical mucus or malnutrition. In severe cases, malnutrition disruptsovulationand causesamenorrhea. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 Cause CF is caused by amutationin thegenecystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator(CFTR). The most common mutation,? F508, is a deletion (? signifying deletion) of three nucleotidesthat results in a loss of the amino acidphenylalanine(F) at the 508th position on the protein. This mutation accounts for two-thirds (6670%) of CF cases worldwide and 90% of cases in theUnited States however, there are over 1500 other mutations that can produce CF.Although most people have two working copies (alleles) of the CFTR gene, only one is needed to endure cystic fibrosis. CF develops when neither allele can produce a functional CFTR protein. Thus, CF is con locatingred anautosomal recessive disease. TheCFTR gene, found at the q31. 2 venueofchromo some 7, is 230,000base pairslong, and creates a protein that is 1,480amino acidslong. More particularizedally the muddle is between base pair 117,120,016 to 117,308,718 on the long arm of chromosome 7, constituent 3, band 1 and sub-band 2, represented as 7q31. . Structurally, CFTR is a type of gene cognize as anABC gene. The product of this gene (the CFTR) is a chloride ion communicate important in creating sweat,digestivejuices andmucus. This protein possesses twoATP-hydrolyzingdomains, which drop by the waysides the protein to useenergyin the form ofATP. It also contains two domains comprising 6alpha helicesapiece, which allow the protein to cross the cell membrane. A regulatorybinding siteon the protein allows energizing byphosphorylation, mainly bycAMP-dependent protein kinase.Thecarboxyl terminalof the protein is anchored to thecytoskeletonby aPDZdomain interaction. In addition, there is increasing evidence that patrimonial modifiers in any case CFTR modulate the frequenc y and severity of the disease. unitary example ismannan-binding lectin, which is involved ininnate immunityby facilitatingphagocytosisof microorganisms. Polymorphisms in one or both mannan-binding lectin alleles that result in lower circulating levels of the protein are associated with a threefold high essay of end-stage lung disease, as well as an increased load of chronic bacterial infections. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 Pathophysiology Molecular structure of the CFTR protein Molecular structure of the CFTR protein There are several mutations in theCFTRgene, and different mutations cause different fractures in the CFTR protein, sometimes causing a milder or more severe disease. These protein defects are also targets for drugs which can sometimes restore their function. ?F508-CFTR, which occurs in >90% of patients in the U. S. , creates a protein that does notfoldnormally and is degraded by the cell.Other mutations result in proteins that are too short ( cut) becauseproductionis ended untimelyly. Other mutations produce proteins that do not use energy normally, do not allowchloride iodideandthiocyanateto cross the membrane appropriately,or are degraded at a faster rate than normal. Mutations may also lead to less copies of the CFTR protein being produced. The protein created by this gene is anchored to theouter membrane ofcellsin thesweat glands, lungs, pancreas, and all other remaining exocrine glands in the body.The protein spans this membrane and acts as a stemmaconnecting the inner part of the cell (cytoplasm) to thesurrounding peregrine. This channel is primarily responsible for controlling the movement of halogens from inside to outside of the cell however, in the sweat ducts it facilitates the movement of chloride from the sweat into the cytoplasm. When the CFTR protein does not work, chloride and thiocyanateare pin down inside the cells in the airway and outside in the skin. Thenhypothio cyanite, OSCN, cannot be produced by immune defense form.Because chloride isnegatively charged, this creates a difference in the galvanisingal potential inside and outside the cell causingcationsto cross into the cell. Sodium is the most common cation in the extracellular space and the cabal of sodium and chloride creates the saltiness, which is incapacitated in high amounts in the sweat of individuals with CF. This lost salt forms the basis for the sweat test. Most of the damage in CF is due to blockage of the narrow passages of affected organs with thickened secretions.These blockages lead to remodeling and infection in the lung, damage by accumulated digestive enzymes in the pancreas, blockage of the intestines by thick faeces, etc. There are several theories on how the defects in the protein and cellular function cause the clinical effects. One theory is that the lack of halogen and pseudohalogen (mainly, chloride, iodide and thiocyanate) exiting by means of the CFTR prote in leads to the accumulation of more viscous, nutrient-rich mucus in the lungs that allows bacteria to hide from the bodysimmune system.Another theory is that the CFTR protein failure leads to a paradoxical increase in sodium and chloride uptake, which, by leading to increased water reabsorption, creates dehydrated and thick mucus. Yet another theory is that abnormal chloride movementoutof the cell leads to dehydration of mucus, pancreatic secretions, biliary secretions, etc. Chronic infections The lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis are colonized and infected by bacteria from an early age. These bacteria, which often spread among individuals with CF, thrive in the altered mucus, which collects in the small airways of the lungs.This mucus leads to the formation of bacterial microenvironments known as biofilms that are difficult for immune cells and antibiotics to penetrate. Viscous secretions and persistent respiratory infections repeatedly damage the lung by gradually remode ling the airways, which makes infection even more difficult to eradicate. Over time, both the types of bacteria and their individual characteristics change in individuals with CF. In the initial stage, common bacteria such asStaphylococcus aureusandHemophilus influenzaecolonize and infect the lungs.Eventually,Pseudomonas aeruginosa(and sometimesBurkholderia cepacia) dominates. By 18 years of age, 80% of patients with classic cystic fibrosis obligatePseudomonas aeruginosa, and another 3. 5% harbor Burkholderia cepacia. Once within the lungs, these bacteria adapt to the environment and develop opponentto commonly used antibiotics. Pseudomonascan develop special characteristics that allow the formation of large colonies, known as mucoidPseudomonas, which are exaltedly seen in people that do not have CF. One way infection spreads is by passing between different individuals with CF.In the past, people with CF often participated in summer CF Camps and other recreational gatherings. Ho spitals grouped patients with CF into common areas and routine equipment (such asnebulizers)was not sterilized between individual patients. This led to transmission of more dangerous strains of bacteria among groups of patients. As a result, individuals with CF are routinely isolated from one another in the healthcare setting and healthcare providers are promote to wear gowns and gloves when examining patients with CF to limit the spread of virulent bacterial strains.CF patients may also have their airways chronically colonized by threadlike fungus kingdom (such asAspergillus fumigatus,Scedosporium apiospermum,Aspergillus terreus) and/or yeasts (such asCandida albicans) other threadlike kingdom Fungi less commonly isolated include Aspergillus flavusandAspergillus nidulans(occur transiently in CF respiratory secretions), andExophiala dermatitidisand Scedosporium prolificans(chronic airway-colonizers) some filamentous fungi likePenicillium emersoniiandAcrophialophora fusisporaare encountered in patients almost exclusively in the linguistic context of CF.Defective mucociliary clearance characterizing CF is associated with local immunological disorders. In addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use of corticosteroid discourses may also facilitate fungal growth. Although the clinical relevance of the fungal airway colonization is still a matter of debate, filamentous fungi may contribute to the local inflammatory response, and therefore to the progressive deterioration of the lung function, as often happens with allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) the ost common fungal disease in the context of CF, involving a Th2-driven immune response to Aspergillus. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- diagnosing and monitoring CFTR gene on chromosome 7 CFTR gene on chromosome 7 Cystic fibrosis may be diagnosed by many different methods includingnewborn screening,sweat testing, and genetic testin g. As of 2006 in the United States, 10 portion of cases are diagnosed shortly after birth as part of newborn screening programs.The newborn screen initially measures for raised blood constriction of immunoreactive trypsinogen. Infants with an abnormal newborn screen need a sweat test to confirm the CF diagnosis. In many cases, a leaven makes the diagnosis because the infant tastes salty. Trypsinogenlevels can be increased in individuals who have a single mutated copy of theCFTRgene ( immune carriers) or, in rare instances, in individuals with two normal copies of theCFTRgene. Due to thesefalse positives, CF screening in newborns can be controversial.Most states and countries do not screen for CF routinely at birth. Therefore, most individuals are diagnosed after symptoms (e. g. sinopulmonary disease and GI manifestations) prompt an evaluation for cystic fibrosis. The most commonly used form of testing is the sweat test. Sweat-testing involves application of a medication that stim ulates sweating (pilocarpine). To deliver the medication through the skin, iontophoresisis used to, whereby oneelectrodeis placed onto the applied medication and an electric currentis passed to a separate electrode on the skin.The resultant sweat is then collected on filter paper or in a capillary tube and analyzed for abnormal amounts ofsodiumandchloride. People with CF have increased amounts of sodium and chloride in their sweat. In contrast, people with CF have less thiocyanate andhypothiocyanitein their saliva and mucus. CF can also be diagnosed by identification of mutations in the CFTR gene. People with CF may be listed in adisease registrythat allows researchers and doctors to track health results and identify candidates forclinical trials. PrenatalCouples who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy can have themselves well-tried for the CFTR gene mutations to determine the risk that their child will be born with cystic fibrosis. Testing is typically performed inaugural on one or both adverts and, if the risk of CF is high, testing on thefetusis performed. TheAmerican College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists(ACOG) recommends testing for couples who have a personal or close family history of CF, and they recommend that carrier testing be offered to all Caucasian couples and be made available to couples of other ethnic backgrounds.Because development of CF in the fetus requires each parent to pass on a mutated copy of the CFTR gene and because CF testing is expensive, testing is often performed initially on one parent. If testing shows that parent is a CFTR gene mutation carrier, the other parent is tested to bet the risk that their children will have CF. CF can result from more than a thousand different mutations, and as of 2006 it is not assertable to test for each one. Testing analyzes the blood for the most common mutations such as ? F508most commercially available tests look for 32 or fewer different mutations.If a family has a known uncommon mut ation, specific screening for that mutation can be performed. Because not all known mutations are found on current tests, a negative screen does not guarantee that a child will not have CF. During pregnancy, testing can be performed on theplacenta(chorionic villus sampling) or the fluid around the fetus (amniocentesis). However,chorionic villus samplinghas a risk of fetal death of 1 in 100 and amniocentesis of 1 in 200a new culture has indicated this may be much lower, round 1 in 1,600.Economically, for carrier couples of cystic fibrosis, when comparing pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with natural conception (NC) followed by prenatal testing and stillbirth of affected pregnancies, PGD provides net economic benefits up to a maternal age of somewhat 40 years, after which NC, prenatal testing and abortion has higher economic benefit. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Management While there are no cures for cystic fibrosis th ere are several treatment methods. The steering of cystic fibrosis has amend significantly over the past 70 years.While infants born with cystic fibrosis 70 years ago would have been unlikely to live beyond their first year, infants today are likely to live well into adulthood. Recent advances in the treatment of cystic fibrosis have meant that an individual with cystic fibrosis can live a fuller manner less encumbered by their condition. The cornerstones of management are proactive treatment ofairway infection, and encouragement of good nutrition and an active lifestyle. Management of cystic fibrosis continues throughout a patients life, and is leaseed at maximizing organ function, and therefore quality of life.At best, current treatments delay the pooh-pooh in organ function. Because of the wide variation in disease symptoms treatment typically occurs at specialist multidisciplinary centers, and is tailored to the individual. Targets for therapy are thelungs,gastrointestinal tract(including pancreatic enzyme supplements), thereproductive organs(including (ART) and psychological support. The most consistent aspect of therapy in cystic fibrosis is limiting and treating the lung damage caused by thick mucus and infection. Intravenous,inhaled, and viva antibiotics are used to treat chronic and acute infections.Mechanical devices and inhalation medications are used to alter and clear the thickened mucus. These therapies, while effective, can be extremely time-consuming for the patient. One of the most important battles that CF patients nervus is decision the time to comply with prescribed treatments while balancing a normal life. In addition, therapies such astransplantationandgene therapyaim to cure some of the effects of cystic fibrosis. Gene therapy aims to introduce normal CFTR to airway. Theoretically this butt against should be simple as the airway is good accessible and there is only a single gene defect to correct.There are two CFTR gene introduc tion mechanisms involved, the first use of a viral vector (adenovirus, adeno-associated virus or retro virus) and secondly the use ofliposome. However there are some problems associated with these methods involving efficiency (liposomes insufficient protein) and slant (virus provokes an immune response). Antibiotics Many CF patients are on one or moreantibioticsat all times, even when healthy, toprophylacticallysuppress infection. Antibiotics are short necessary whenever pneumonia is suspected or there has been a noticeable decline in lung function, and are usually chosen based on the results of a putum analysis and the patients past response. This prolonged therapy often necessitates hospitalization and insertion of a more permanentIVsuch as aperipherally inserted central catheter(PICC line) orPort-a-Cath. Inhaled therapy with antibiotics such as tobramycin,colistin, andaztreonamis often give for months at a time to reform lung function by hindering the growth of colonized bac teria. Oral antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin orazithromycinare given to help prevent infection or to control ongoing infection. Theaminoglycosideantibiotics (e. g. obramycin) with long-term use can causeseveral side effects such as hearing loss, damaging thebalance systempresent in theinner earand producing many chronic kidney problems. To prevent theseside-effects, the amount of antibiotics in the blood are routinely measured and set accordingly. Other treatments for lung disease Several mechanical techniques are used to unfreeze sputum and encourage its expectoration. In the hospital setting, chest physiotherapy (CPT) is employ a respiratory therapist percusses an individuals chest with his or her hands several times a day, to ride up secretions.Devices that recreate this percussive therapy include theThAIRapy Vestand theintrapulmonary percussive ventilator(IPV). Newer methods such asBiphasic Cuirass Ventilation, and associated clearance mode available in such devices, integr ate a cough avail stagecoach, as well as a vibration phase for dislodging secretions. These are portable and adapted for home use. Aerosolized medications that help loosen secretions includedornase alfaandhypertonicsaline. Dornase is arecombinanthuman deoxyribonuclease, which breaks down DNA in thesputum, thus decreasing itsviscosity.Denufosolis an investigational drug that opens an alternative chloride channel, helping to liquefy mucus. As lung disease worsens, mechanical breathing support may become necessary. Individuals with CF may need to wear special masks at night that help push air into their lungs. These machines, known asbi-level positive airway pressure(BiPAP) ventilators, help prevent low blood oxygen levels during sleep. BiPAP may also be used during physical therapy to improve sputum clearance. During severe illness, atubemay be placed in the throat (a map known as atracheostomy) to enable breathing supported by aventilator.For children living with CF, preliminary s tudies show pediatric massage therapy may improve patients and their families quality of life, though more rigorous studies must be done. Transplantation Lung transplantationoften becomes necessary for individuals with cystic fibrosis as lung function ceases andexercise tolerancedeclines. Although single lung transplantation is possible in other diseases, individuals with CF must have both lungs replaced because the remaining lung might contain bacteria that could infect the transplanted lung.A pancreatic or liver transplant may be performed at the same time in order to excuse liver disease and/or diabetes. Lung transplantation is considered when lung function declines to the point where assistance from mechanical devices is required or patient natural selection is threatened. Other aspects Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be used to provide fertility for men with cystic. .fibrosis Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be used to provide fertility for men with cystic. .fibrosis New-borns with intestinal obstruction typically require functioning, whereas adults withdistal intestinal obstruction syndrome typically do not.Treatment of pancreatic insufficiency by surrogate of missing digestive enzymes allows the duodenum to properly absorb nutrients and vitamins that would otherwise be lost in the faeces. So far, no large-scale research involving the incidence of coronary artery diseaseandcoronary heart diseasein adults with cystic fibrosis has been conducted. This is likely due to the fact that the vast majority of people with cystic fibrosis do not live long enough to develop clinically significant atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease.Diabetesis the most common non-pulmonary complication of CF. It mixes features oftype 1andtype 2diabetes, and is recognized as a apparent entity,cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). While oralanti-diabetic drugsare sometimes used, the only recommended treatment is the use ofinsulininjections or aninsulin pump,and u nlike in type 1 and 2 diabetes, dietary restrictions are not recommended. Development ofosteoporosiscan be prevented by increased intake of vitamin D andcalcium, and can be treated bybisphosphonates, althoughadverse effectscan be an issue.Poor growth may be avoided by insertion of afeeding tubefor increasingcaloriesthrough supplemental feeds or by administration of injectedgrowth hormone. Sinus infections are treated by prolonged courses of antibiotics. The development of nasal polyps or other chronic changes within the nasal passages may severely limit airflow through the nose, and over time reduce the patients sense of smell. Sinus surgery is often used to alleviate nasal obstruction and to limit further infections. Nasal steroids such asfluticasoneare used to decrease nasal inflammation.Female infertility may be overcome byassisted trainingtechnology (ART) with the help of embryo transfertechniques. Male infertility caused by absence of thevas deferensmay be overcome withtestic ular sperm extraction(TEST), collecting sperm cells directly from the testicles. If the collected sample contains too few sperm cells to likely have a spontaneousfertilization,intracytoplasmic sperm injectioncan be performed. Third party reproductionis also a possibility for women with CF. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- PrognosisThe prognosis for cystic fibrosis has improved due to earlier diagnosis through screening, better treatment and access to health care. In 1959, the median age of survival of children with cystic fibrosis in the United States was six months. In 2008, survival averaged 37. 4 years. In Canada, median survival increased from 24 years in 1982 to 47. 7 in 2007. Of those with cystic fibrosis who are more than 18 years old as of 2009 92% had graduated fromhigh school, 67% had at least some college education, 15% were disabled and 9% were unemployed, 56% were single and 39% were married or living with a partner.In Ru ssiathe overall median age of patients is 25, which is caused by the absence or high cost of medication and the fact that lung transplantation is not performed. Quality of life Chronic illnesses can be very difficult to manage. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic illness that affects the digestive and respiratory tracts resulting in generalized malnutrition and chronic respiratory infections. The thick secretions clog the airways in the lungs, which often cause inflammation and severe lung infections. Therefore, mucus makes it challenging to breathe.If it is compromised, it affects the quality of life of someone with CF, and their ability to complete such tasks as everyday chores. It is important for CF patients to understand the detrimental relationship that chronic illnesses place on the quality of life. Havermans and colleagues (2006) have shown that young outpatients with CF that have participated in the CFQ-R (Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised) rated some QOL domains higher t han did their parents. Consequently, outpatients with CF have a more positive scout for themselves.Furthermore, there are many ways to improve the QOL in CF patients. Exercise is promoted to increase lung function. The fact of integrating an exercise regimen into the CF patients daily routine can significantly improve the quality of life. There is no definitive cure for Cystic Fibrosis. However, there are diverse medications used such as, mucolytics, bronchodilators, steroids and antibiotics that have the purpose of easiness mucus, expanding airways, decreasing inflammation and fighting lung infections. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212-Epidemiology Mutation Frequency worldwide ?F508 66%70% G542X 2. 4% G551D 1. 6% N1303K 1. 3% W1282X 1. 2% All others 27. 5% Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive disease among people ofCaucasian heritage. In the United States, approximately 30,000 individuals have CF most are diagnosed by six months of age. InCanada, there are approximately 3,500 people with CF. Approximately 1 in 25 people of European descent, and one in 30 of Caucasian Americans, is a carrier of a cystic fibrosis mutation.Although CF is less common in these groups, approximately 1 in 46Hispanics, 1 in 65Africansand 1 in 90 Asianscarry at least one abnormal CFTR gene. Ireland has the worlds highest incidence of cystic fibrosis, at 11353. Although technically arare disease, cystic fibrosis is ranked as one of the most widespread life-shortening genetic diseases. It is most common among nations in the Western world. An exception isFinland, where only one in 80 people carry a CF mutation. In the United States, 1 in 4,000 children are born with CF. In 1997, almost 1 in 3,300 Caucasian children in the United States was born with cystic fibrosis.In contrast, only 1 in 15,000 African American children suffered from cystic fibrosis, and in Asian Americans the rate was even lower at 1 in 32 ,000. Cystic fibrosis is diagnosed in males and females equally. For reasons that remain unclear, data has shown that males tend to have a longerlife expectancythan females,however recent studies propose this gender gap may no longer exist perchance due to improvements in health care facilities,while a recent study from Ireland identified a link between the female hormone, estrogen and worse outcomes in CF.The distribution of CF alleles varies among populations. The frequency of ? F508 carriers has been estimated at 1200 in northern Sweden, 1143 in Lithuanians, and 138 in Denmark. No ? F508 carriers were found among 171Finnsand 151Saami people. ?F508 does occur in Finland, but it is a minority allele there. Cystic fibrosis is known to occur in only 20 families (pedigrees) in Finland. Hypotheses about prevalence The? F508mutation is estimated to be up to 52,000 years old. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced as to why such a lethal mutation has persisted and spread in the human population.Other common autosomal recessive diseases such assickle-cell anemia have been found to protect carriers from other diseases, a concept known asheterozygote advantage. Resistances to the succeeding(a) have all been proposed as possible sources of heterozygote advantage * Cholera With the finding and discovery thatcholera toxinrequires normal host CFTR proteins to function properly, it was hypothesized that carriers of pas seul CFTR genes benefited from resistor to cholera and other causes of diarrhea. Further studies have not confirmed this hypothesis. typhoid fever Normal CFTR proteins are also required essentially for the entry ofSalmonella typhiinto cells,suggesting that carriers of the mutant CFTR genes might be resistant totyphoid fever. Noin vivostudy has yet confirmed this. In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where both cholera and typhoid fever areendemic, is not immediately explicable. * Diarrhea It has also been hypoth esized that the prevalence of CF in Europe might be connected with the development of cattle domestication. In this hypothesis, carriers of a ingle mutant CFTR chromosome had some protection from diarrhea caused by lactose intolerance, prior to the appearance of the mutations that created lactose tolerance. * Tuberculosis Another explanation is that carriers of the gene could have some resistance to TB. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- History It is supposed that CF appeared about 3,000 BC because of migration of peoples, gene mutations, and new conditions in nourishment. Although the entire clinical spectrum of CF was not recognized until the 1930s, certain aspects of CF were identified much earlier.Indeed, booksfrom Germany and Switzerland in the 18th century warnedWehe dem Kind, das beim Ku? auf die Stirn salzig schmekt, er ist verhext und pile bald sterbeor Woe to the child who tastes salty from a kiss on the brow, for he is cur sed and soon must die, recognizing the association between the salt loss in CF and illness. Dorothy Hansine Andersen Dorothy Hansine Andersen In the 19th century,Carl von Rokitansky draw and quarterd a case of fetal death withmeconium peritonitis, a complication of meconium ileus associated with cystic fibrosis.Meconium ileus was first described in 1905 byKarl Landsteiner. In 1936,Guido Fanconi make a paper describing a connecting link betweenceliac disease, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, and bronchiectasis. In 1938Dorothy Hansine Andersenpublished an article, Cystic Fibrosis of the Pancreas and Its Relation to Celiac Disease a Clinical and Pathological Study, in theAmerican Journal of Diseases of Children. She was the first to describe the characteristic cystic fibrosis of the pancreas and to correlate it with the lung and intestinal disease prominent in CF.She also first hypothesized that CF was a recessive disease and first used pancreatic enzyme replacement to treat affected c hildren. In 1952 capital of Minnesota di Sant Agnese discovered abnormalities insweatelectrolytes asweat testwas genuine and improved over the next decade. The first linkage between CF and another marker (Paroxonase) was found in 1985, indicating that only one locus exists for CFHans Eiberg. In 1988 the first mutation for CF,? F508was discovered byFrancis Collins,Lap-Chee Tsuiand illusion R. Riordanon the seventh chromosome.Subsequent research has found over 1,000 different mutations that cause CF. Because mutations in the CFTR gene are typically small,classical genetic sciencetechniques had been unable to accurately pinpoint the mutated gene. Using protein markers,gene-linkagestudies were able to map the mutation to chromosome 7. Chromosome-walking and-jumpingtechniques were then used to identify andsequencethe gene. In 1989 Lap-Chee Tsui led a team of researchers at the Hospital for Sick ChildreninTorontothat discovered the gene responsible for CF.Cystic fibrosis represents the f irst genetic disorder elucidated strictly by the process ofreverse genetics. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Research Gene therapy Gene therapyhas been explored as a potential cure for cystic fibrosis. Ideally, gene therapy places a normal copy of theCFTR gene into affected cells. Transferring the normal CFTR gene into the affected epithelium cells would result in the production of functional CFTR in all target cells, without adverse reactions or an inflammation response.Studies have shown that to prevent the lung manifestations of cystic fibrosis, only 510% the normal amount of CFTRgene let outionis needed. Multiple approaches have been tested for gene transfer, such as liposomes and viral vectors in animal models and clinical trials. However, both methods were found to be relatively inefficient treatment options. The main reason is that very few cells take up the vector and deport the gene, so the treatment has little effect. Add itionally, problems have been noted in cDNA recombination, such that the gene introduced by the treatment is rendered unusable.With the help of theCystic Fibrosis Trust, which has a league of highly professional gene therapists, both somatic and Adeno-associated viral vector have made advances. TheAdenoviridae, or more commonly known as the cold virus, is genetically altered, allowing the CFTR gene to enter lung cells. Small molecules A number ofsmall moleculesthat aim at compensating various mutations of the CFTR gene are under development. One approach is to develop drugs that get the ribosome to overcome thestop codonand synthesize a full-length CFTR protein.About 10% of CF results from a premature stop codon in the DNA, leading to early termination of protein synthesis and truncated proteins. These drugs target hokum mutationssuch as G542X, which consists of the amino acidgenus Glycinein position 542 being replaced by a stop codon. Aminoglycoside antibiotics intercede with DNA synthesis and error-correction. In some cases, they can cause the cell to overcome the stop codon, insert a random amino acid, and express a full-length protein.The aminoglycosidegentamicinhas been used to treat lung cells from CF patients in the laboratory to induce the cells to grow full-length proteins. Another drug targeting nonsense mutations isataluren, which is undergoing Phase III clinical trials as of October 2011. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BIOLOGY TEXTBOOK FOR carve up XII (NCERT) 2. TRUEMANS BIOLOGY FOR CLASS XII 3. SCIENCE newsperson (September, 2007) 4. THE NEWYORK TIMES (December 22, 2009) 5. www. google. co. in/cysticfibrosis 6. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Cystic_fibrosis 7. www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov 8. www. cff. org/ 9. www. cysticfibrosis. com/ 10. www. cftrust. org. uk/

Bank of America Corp Essay

strand of the States Corporation supplies banking and non-banking financial services and products to individual customers and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the form of retail banking, larger corporations and government of the United States and even to ball-shaped arena. The bank generates the savings accounts, capital marketplace savings accounts, checking accounts from the deposits segment. The world-wide fluff services segment allows the US consumers with business card, consumer lending and international calculate card services.The Home Loans and Insurance segment offers it consumers with products and services related to hearty commonwealth such as mortgage and home legality brings. The spheric banking segment gives mercenary loans, leasing, short-term loans, capital management and treasury solutions. The orbicular Markets solution provides advisory services, custody services and securities clearing. The banks spherical Wealth and Investment Management seg ment caters to estate management, brokerage services, reference work and banking expertise.The profit margin for the bank was 7. 05 per centum in the past stratum. Bank of America has a $1. 5 trillion goal for comm unity training lending focusing on affordable housing, SMEs, consumer funding and economic emergence in general. worldwide Consumer and Small Business Banking is the largest segment of the bank and foc uptakes by and large on credit card issuance and consumer banking. This division has over 6200 retail branches and over 18700 ATMs over the US.The bank is alike a member of Global ATM alliance- initiative taken by many banks to that enable the customers to use the ATM or check card with no fees. The organization also supplies its employees to buy hybrid vehicles and has an eco-friendly tower in Manhattan and even gives mortgage loan breaks to consumers whose homes pass as being energy efficient. The bank has even donated coin for the health centers in Massachusetts and to the homeless shelters in Miami. JP Morgan Chase and troupe JP Morgan Chase provides a variety of financial services across the globe. in that respect is the Investment bank segment for corporate strategy and structure, capital elevation in equity and debt markets, risk management and provides the financial institutions, governments and corporations with institutional investors. on that point is Commercial banking segment that does lending, treasury services, cash management, trade and whole sales event cards to SMEs and multinational companies. The Asset management segment provides wealth and investment management services to institutions as well as retail investors.Global investment management in equities, real estate, hedge funds, fixed income, gold market instruments and banking deposits are also offered by the bank. The company has Retail financing services segment that caters to retail banking for the consumer through checking and savings accounts, mortgages, home equity and business loans and online banking and telephone banking. The Card Services segment provides the credit cards and keeps track of the credit payments processes. The profit margin for the latest fiscal year has been 19. 52 percent. Its consumer functions involve more than 3000 branches, 8500 ATMs and 270 mortgage offices.JP Morgan and Chase fared well compared to its peer in the credit crunch of 2007 and even though investment banking unit suffered and the bank even increased its loan reserves losses by $4. 3 billion. And even then the net income of the bank was 25 percent due to the growth in strong earnings of the banks credit card and commercial banking units. After the survival of the bank in such a tough scenario it has proven the effectiveness with which it has been offering the various(a) array of financial services businesses. Citigroup and Inc The company has two distinct segments Citicorp and Citi Holdings.Citicorp is the global bank for the businesses plus the c onsumers and is divided into two main businesses namely regional consumer banking and institutional clients group. The regional consumer banking provides the conventional services of retail banking, cards and commercial banking on small-scale in North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. cater to the securities and banking services such as investment banking, advisory services, lending, debt and equity sales, exotic exchange, institutional brokerage and treasury and trade solutions is the institutional clients group.Whereas the segment Citi Holdings has trio businesses to look at brokerage and asset management, local consumer lending and peculiar(prenominal) asset pool. The brokerage and asset management division in a joint venture with Morgan and Stanley and provides retail brokerage and asset management services. The local consumer lending provides mortgage loans, personal loans, student loans, commercial real estate loans and even western Europe an card. The special asset pool is a portfolio of securities, loans and other assets. The profit margin for the latest year has been negative 0. 84 percent.Citigroup is the sixteenth largest political campaign donator in the US according to concentre for Responsive politics. Citigroup even obtained naming rights as Citi Field to the home car park of the New Major League Baseball team in 2009. pass After research of the three banks, Citigroup has been the one to be involved in many scandals ranging from financing Enron and alleged money laundering facilitation and even conducting biased research on the customers. Citigroup even disrupted the European bond market by selling a large amount of bonds and then acquire them back a cheaper price.The organization has also been alleged of stealing money from its customers especially the poor and the recently deceased with an improper sweep vaunt in its computers. Hence it can be said that Citigroup has to go a long way in clearing its im age with the consumers because now with the internet, theyre aware of everything and already Citigroup faces a lot of competition from its competitors. Reference Winkler, Rolfe (August 21, 2009). extended banks still hold regulators hostage. Reuters, via Forbes. com (Retrieved August 21, 2010)

Friday, January 25, 2019

Plain English at Work: A Guide to Business Writing Speaking by Edward Bailey Essay

Edward Bailey conveys deep yet dim-witted approach to composing and communication effectively. A comprehensive guide to compose, the book is in the first-person eyeshot and Baileys style to composing exactly conveys his thoughts to the reader through truthful and makeable nomenclature and condemnations. The feel of the book is as if Bailey promptly communicates with the reader, lecture or addressing in a simple(a) counselling. His aim is to make unnecessary simply, avoiding tangled words and wordy paragraphs that provide irradiate understanding on the fortune of the reader.Chapter 1 What is unembellished position piece?The first chapter of the book discusses the essentials of English composing. Bailey first defined what flying field English is a bearing of expressing your ideas understandably in writing and speaking.1 He then enumerated three principles in perspicuous English writing expression This involves writing in clear, readable, and simple sentences kinda than complex unrivalednesss. As Bailey suggests write more the way you talk.2 Organization The primary(prenominal) idea or topic is immediately written at the spark off to avoid confusion of ideas or redirecting the flow of the topic.  Layout Lastly, this principle is merely an arrangement of thoughts into a bullet form, subtitles or headings that can be championful, visually.Bailey then discussed the variant forms of plain writing as he comp atomic number 18d and contrasted plain writing from problemese or business writing. He applyd businessese as a form of writing dialect which he comp atomic number 18d to academese, leaglese, bureaucratese etc. report should be plain and simple, as presented in the example where business writing oftentimes uses wordy sentences on a simple idea that confuses its principal(prenominal) point and is sometimes attached to misinterpretation.Plain writing encourages reader to p name simple words or else than complex i si nce, according to psycholinguists, the comprehension of complex and simple words of the human mind is a few hundred milliseconds but does non contribute to strain on short-term memory which helps better understanding.3 He then presented s perpetuallyal institutions in society that encourages plain English writing like the US military, federal agencies, and even lawyers. At the end of the chapter, avowedly to his notion of agreement and layout, he presented the overall structure of the book and enumerated the ideas that atomic number 18 to be found in the succeeding chapters.Chapter SummaryBailey presented the idea of plain English writing as a means of communicating effectively as well as providing a clear understanding of the master(prenominal) topic or idea. Plain English is light-headed to read and write that can be used to provide understanding on a simple or complex idea. Wordiness and highfaluting words often contribute to misunderstanding or misinterpretation. The aim o f speaking and writing is to directly convey to the reader the main subject or idea, especially on the perspective of business writing. The application of this method is true, especially on business writing since it is essential for members of the working industry to directly convey the kernel of intent so as to avoid confusion or misinterpretation. In addition, the notion of simple or plain writing may seem un rentable to some exemplifications of writing because of simplistic use of words. However, the point of writing is to directly convey the message of the writer, and through the use of simple words, ideas ranging from easy to complex can be easily explained through puritanical geological formation of thought, word usage, and such.Chapter 2 Style writing a readable sentenceThe chapter discusses the first principle Bailey mentioned in effective, plain, English writing. For Bailey, style involves utilizing the way one talk or speaks. Write more the way you talk with everyd ay words, a variety of punctuation, person-to-person pronouns and contractions.4For the author, the most effective way of plain writing is to write the way you talk write as though you are directly communicating with the reader. One should in like manner write in an aimd and polite manner.However, the problem with writing as though you talk may sound simplistic or simple-minded. However, Bailey countered this argument by simply writing on the level of how one would communicate with the other. Basically, the difference surrounded by talking to a five year-old to a 25-year old is the way one talks. Therefore, writing entails the process of how one would commune themselves to the other.Tips on Talking and Writing5 Imagining oneself communicating with the reader minus the phonetic punctuations like uhhs, and ums. Speaking and writing go hand in hand. Use ordinary words. Wordiness contributes to confusion.o prototype kind of of commence, use get down Variety of punctuation (Questi on marks are a good way to eliminate monotonous sentences)o guinea pig The main point is that the defective computer disks are not the certificate of indebtedness of the manufacturer. = Just who is responsible for defective computer disks? Use more personal pronouns It enables using the active voice rather than passive voice. Use more contractionso Example Cant, wont, dont, thats.Rules on WritingBailey suggested that the use of contractions and the aforementioned tips in writing may slightly diverge from the eclipses set during the formative years in school. However, Bailey pointd that not all rules are followed. He categorized them into three rules we all agree with, rules few plurality agree with, and rules amateurs follow and professional dont.Rules People FollowBailey mentioned the use the universal rules of writing and grammar. We all spot to start sentences with capital letter and end them with periods or other terminal marks of punctuation.6 These rules are not the obj ect of controversy in most writing cases since people know these rules and follow them.Rules Few People Agree WithBailey mentioned a case on pop-grammar where he cited an example from the writing styles of The New York Times.The Soviet Union patently is not able to convince Cairo to accept a quick cease fire.7The use of pop-grammar in this sentence refers to the usage most pop-grammarians argue about. These are the grammar experts who have the know-how on the rules of usage.Rules Amateurs Follow and Professionals DontBasically, these rules are used by professionals that sometimes do not follow the standard rules of writing and the issues on pop-grammar. Bailey mentioned John Trimble in his book Writing with Style Conversations on the Art of Writing list Seven nevers81. neer begin a sentence with and or but.2. Never use contractions.3. Never refer to the reader as you.4. Never use the first person pronoun I.5. Never end a sentence with a preposition.6. Never split an infinitive.7. Never write a paragraph containing only a single sentence.To Bailey however, the way to simple writing is eliminating the never in the aforementioned rules. Professional writing often involves spoken English, and these rules are not often followed, even by professionals.Chapter SummaryBailey enumerated several uses on style. The main argument of the chapter focuses on writing as one would speak. This enables an effective way of communication through simple word use, contractions, and questions as well as putting ones shoes on the perspective of the writer directly talking to the reader. On the subject of contractions, the use of which may not be acceptable to the standards of perfunctory writing or journalism. It is preferable for these contractions (cant, wont) to be spelled out (can not, allow not) in order to be considered appropriate usage, especially on faculty member writing or journalism. Though contractions may not suit musket ball standards of writing, its usage does n ot make it wrong or inappropriate. The main motif of the book is to write as though one would speak, and the use of contractions helps in directly conveying messages by being simple and easy to understand.Chapter 3 Organization getting to the pointChapter SummaryIn lieu of simple English writing, the main topic or subject should be easily spotted, preferably at the first base of every paragraph, though not inevitably as the first sentence. This involves what the writer sine qua nons to readers to do, purpose or opinion.Often, if main ideas are not set(p) at the beginning of a composing or article, it confuses and frustrates the reader as they are lost reading through pages of paragraphs without ever realizing what the whole topic is all about. Therefore it is preferable, according to Bailey, that main ideas should be placed up front.Common problems why main ideas are placed at the end to make readers read the entire history to cook the case so reader will more likely to accep t the main point to re-enact how the writer learned something to delay bad newsHowever, most readers do not bother finishing the entire document if main ideas are nowhere to be found up front. Readers blase with the pointless arguments of preceding paragraphs jump to the end in order to understand the main point.In the case of delaying bad news, the whole mood of the paper is compromised as tension and suspense build up not in reality the intention of proper business writing. Stating bad news also involves proper tone usage. With bad news, tone becomes extremely important. You probably want to evidence something with a less rude tone than Youre fired.9The proper way to convey bad news is to directly mention it at the beginning.why Main Ideas Should be Placed in the Beginning It avoids frustration on the part of reader. The reader immediately grasps the idea instead of having to read illimitable paragraphs without understanding the main idea. It directly conveys the message of the writer (to do something, expectation, etc.) In writing chronologically, the main idea should be placed at the beginning since it would take time to know what really happened. Readers do not want a blow-by-blow account of what happened.Chapter 4 Layout Adding Visual ImpactLayout is something that appears abrupt and inviting.10 A good layout of a paper or work encourages readers to travel on through the papers entirety and also helps in the organization of thoughts and ideas.Three Layout Techniques Short paragraphs Writing through short paragraphs instead of writing a block of text encourages readers to read more in between spaces instead of having to look at text crammed in one page. The text-heavy concept is applied in newspapers as the layout of articles is placed in between-ads or pictures so as not to appear boring. Headings This provides an organized way of arranging thoughts instead of numerous paragraphs. By dividing different thoughts or ideas into subtitles, it gives a visually appealing look for the reader and also a proper organization of thoughts (e.g. newspapers, textbooks). Bullets/Lists Similar with the use of headings, bullets and lists provide an organized detail of a main subject or idea rather than incorporating all ideas into a enormous paragraph. On the case of numbered lists, this can be used when providing steps or instructions.Chapter SummaryThrough the use of the aforementioned thought organization techniques, these methods help the writer in organizing thoughts and ideas in a manner that will gimp the attention of the reader and would encourage to read on. In addition, the use of these techniques is not only applied in the business perspective but also in journalism and other forms of writing. It is important, especially on business writing, to organize thoughts or details to directly convey the message and to avoid confusion. This rule also applies to writing in general, as proper writing involves clear and concise thoughts, p roper word usage, and organization of thoughts, not merely a hodgepodge of ideas.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Bullying and True Inner Feelings

Bullying causes and consequenses In todays world, intimidation is nonhing by of the ordinary. E very(prenominal)day we hear about bullying, whether it is in the news, at school, or from our friends and is go a worldwide problem that occurring around us everyday and everywhere. masses experience some sort of bullying at some signal in their lives whether they be the victim or the bully. What has developed as a common thing amongst volume of all ages has had serious effects and caused tragedies for many an(prenominal) people.People go about with their daily tasks in life and sometimes beart realize the the harm they are causing to other people when they make jokes about others whether they have disabilities, culture or material apperances. This instructive essay pass on focus on the causes and the conseques of bullying and the effect it has in todays society. Although there are multiple ways to define bullying, it is a ostracize action directed to a specific individual an d carried out by one or possibly groups of people.Bullying is basically anything that makes a person come up hurt of embarrassed whether it is physical or phsycological. No matter if it is physical or mentally, bullying is always wrong. Bullying john be put in two categorizes verbal,physical and cyber bullying. Verbal bully is known to be the more or less common type of bullying. it is when you criticize someone because of their physical appearance. and physical bullying is a common everywhere you go whether it being at al-Qaida or in genral public.Physical bullying piece of tail be influenced by a lot of things such as such media as television, music and sometimes people that are really close to us such as our parents and friends are all factors that layabout influence physical bullying which can cut to something even more dangerous. Cyber bullying is when an individual is emarrased or tormented by another individual using the internet. Unnecessary posts, name employment or mean emails are all ways of cyber bullying.Cyber bullying is very serious in todays society because the individual that is being bullied may take it hard to tell someone about what they are going though. nonetheless though cyber bullying cannot physically hurt an individual,it can leave that person feeling mentally distressed and upset. In many cases, bullying can be triggered by numerous of these individuals to use rage and violence to get over their problems. Individuals raised in these kind of atmosphere might not promise these kinds of actions wherther it is hysical or verbal as bullying but will only see such behavior as normal and acceptable because they are use to that kind of behavior. For some individuals that are yound and are kids, poor faculty member performance can be another cause of bullying. Some of these children beat in the classroom and feel that they are not being helped by teachers and even fellow classmates which can lead to them loosing hope. When h ope is lost these children will act out and this can translate to them being bullies and seeking punish on other children that are achieving more and doing well.These children become bullies that hurt, threaten and chasten other people because they are often angry, jealous and when can lead them to be very aggressive. Another cause for bullying is low self-importance esteemwhen you add up all the possibilities, it should come as no confusion that bullies tend to struggle with self esteem . the outward behaviors they practice rightfully shows their true inner feelings. They lack self confidence, struggle to fit in and are ofen judeged by others and feel confident and feel powerful by controlling others.These individuals that are bullies who are often thought of as not as smart have little empathy for these victims and derive satisfaction from injuries and suffereing on others. They often defend their actions by saying that their victim started it by create them which led to the bullys action. They are often anti social,and having a positive about violenve are some other traits often lay down in these bullies. Children arent always bullies but men and women of all ages can also be bullies.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Catcher in the Rye Song

The song Talk, by Coldplay is roughly feeling confused almost life, especi altogethery about the future, and needing to ripple with someone about it in order to get all the worries and concerns and fears out in the open, and hopefully try to figure out a solution to them. It is comparable a conversation between two sight, one the person needing help, and the opposite the advisor. In states, tell me how you feel.. well I feel like theyre talking in a language I dont speak. This song relates to Holden because its about the lonesomeness and depression of Holden.The tone of this song is loneliness and isolation. The mood it puts me in is lonely, heartbroken and depressed. The symbol for this song about Holden is the cherry hat because when he puts it on, he feels safe and makes him feel happier. This song is formula if you talk to someone about what your going done then you entrust feel better and get through things easier. I think the blood-red hat symbols this song becau se when Holden puts in on he feels protected and in the song it saying to talk to someone and take on a associate there to make you feel protected and cares for you.In the song, it states, When Holden is act to tell lot Youll tell anyone who will listen scarce you feel ignored nonhings sincerely making any sense at all, is like when Holden is always trying to tell people about himself or about what he thinks about, however no one seems to care and Holden feels like hes macrocosm ignored. For example, when he talks about the ducks in central park, the taxi device driver refuses to talk to him about it, calling him stupid. The title its self says a lot about Holden already.The title of this song is Talk, which is something Holden doesnt do much and such do more of. He likes to keep things to himself and when he does talk, people ignore him and think he is weird. Holden doesnt like to talk to other people about what hes going through because he feels like they wont care so he doesnt talk about anything and I feel like Holden should talk to people about what hes going through so he could have feel like hes cared for and to get advice and have a someone to guide him to the right direction.When the song says, theyre talking a language I dont speak its about how Holden feels so disconnected from everyone else. He felt like everyone was a fake throughout the novel and that he couldnt relate to anyone. The music is very slow and mellow and makes me feel fire inside and when they sing, they say the lyrics very slowly and calm. The chorus is about all the possibilities that life holds, and all the things that we stop achieve.In the song is says, you could climb a range up to the sun, or write a song nobody had sung, or do something thats never been done. This song is also talking about his deceased brother, saying how he is scared about the future because he has been in and out of schools so many times it will in spades affect him. This song is about the sad ness felt at not having his brother around to give him advice during a difficult time in his life. Its really sad and emotional and the guitar riffs emphasize the anguish and strong emotion.I can relate to this song. Its clearly about trying desperately to talk to someone about something but they can never speak of whats on their nous because they can never get through to anyone, so they keep their feelings to themselves. The principal(prenominal) theme of this song is no matter what we do in life, we never do it alone. I think this song is about losing someone you really care about and finding a way to talk but cant get through to them through spirit. It seems to be a song about not relating to the rest of the world, and wondering what the future holds.

Physical Education Essay

1. History and meaning of visible grooming.History of forcible EducationThe Spartans and Athenians were the first to have a type of somatogenetic procreation. though actually divergent, both systems served the people and supplied their needs. The Spartan system was similar to dictatorship, a form of government. At the age of seven, boys were taken to learn basic force skills while living in barracks. When they reached the age of fourteen, they began learning group reacting tactics which would allow them to succeed while in the military from the ages of twenty to thirty. Once thirty, the men could then marry a women who had been doing some preparation of her own in order to make strong babies. The philosophy of the Spartans was fundamentally to allow them to invade other countries if desired, and to prevent other countries from invading them. behold much levelheaded foundation garment of directionThe philosophy of the Athenians was quite different comp ard to the Spart ans. The Athenian culture was very democratic, and focused on training of the judgment and body. Reading and writing was a large part of society as well as physiologic activity which took place in the centre of the city where the gymnasium was located. The physiologic education philosophy of the Athenians was the high demonstrate of material education for some(prenominal) years.Some other cycles in personal education that we have evolved from are that of the Romans, the dark ages, and the crusades. The Roman era is a bit disturbing, but is nonetheless a cycle of physical education. Physical education for the Romans was about athletics, which was primarily about entertainment. People were forced to fight to the death, and oftentimes fed to lions. During the dark ages, religion viewed physical education as a waste of time and a work of the devil. The dark ages were a very sedentary time for human civilization. Following the dark ages in approximately 1096, were the crusades.Th e crusades were a time of muscular Christianity, because of the Muslims conquering Jerusalem. Muscular Christianity is fundamentally Christians believing that the more one trained to become good soldiers, the more Christian a person was. In 1270, the crusades ended and so did the apprehension of physical education being worthwhile until approximately 1400 when the renaissance achievement began. Physical education during the renaissance period is quite similar to physical education today. It is done to better oneself, not to be doing something for someone else. The emergence of physical education had another setback in the 1600s when it was very functional and not a priority. People believed that if it did not have a specific purpose, than it was a waste of time.During the 1700s, there was a big reposition in physical education that can be largely attributed to terzetto people Rousseau, Johan Simon, and Guts Muths. Rousseau was the first person to promote education for the bat ch and he also thought of play as being educational. In 1712, Rousseau invented an activity that is still used by millions of children everyday, recess.Johan Simon was the first physical education teacher and believed physical education should be taught on with reading and writing. Simon believed physical education should include a lot of physical labor. Guts Muths veritable a series of gymnastic apparatuses and believed physical education developed very important social skills. These people of the 1700s and the things they did began paving the road to where we are today. During the 1800s, physical education programs were finding their guidance into universities which contributed to more things we have today. impudent mutations were being invented, intramurals were being brought into schools, women began exercising, gymnasiums could be found in most colleges, and many recreational areas and parks were being built in order to light the crime rate.This continued on into the 190 0s which brought on the creation of the subject area Collegiate Athletic Association to regulate college athletics, and the golden age of sports during the 20 and 30s. During this golden age of sport, the number of people in sport increased dramatically, the number of teachers increased, and physical education began moving toward the involvement of sport. In 1941, World War II began which brought a big shock along with it. Of the first 2 million males drafted, 45% failed their physical. With this, physical education began to be very strongly pushed in schools in order to remediate the health of the American people.Since W.W. II, the United States has continued to press the importance of physical education, which brings it to where it is today, a highly complex field with many different sub-disciplines. The sub-disciplines are cause physiology, which is the study of bodily systems and their reactions to the stress of exercise. Kinesiology, which is the study of how the muscular s ystem moves the raddled structure of the body. Biomechanics, which is the study of the human body as a mechanized system, utilizing principles and applications from physics.Motor learning, which is the changes in motor performance related to experience and practice. gambol sociology, which is the social structure, social patterns, and social organization of groups engaged in sport. enjoyment Psychology, which is the stud of behavioral and psychological issues and problems in sport. Sport pedagogy, which is the study of the processes of educational activity and coaching, the outcomes of such endeavors, and the content of fitness, physical-education, and sport-education programs. (Siedentop)These sub-disciplines have created many new jobs for people in the field of education, and will surely branch off to form others in the future.Physical education has definitely come a long way since the Spartans and Athenians. From an authoritarian type system to promoting lifespan physical ed ucation with many sciences studying the different intangibles of physical education in order to better the mind and body. These new sciences have obviously broadened the umbrella of physical education, but when looking to the future, there really is no end in sight. The growing umbrella will continue getting larger as new thoughts and ideas come, and with them, new sciences also.Definition of Physical EducationPhysical Education is an educational course taken during primary and secondary level, and even third level that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or attempt exploration setting to promote health. It is also defined as a process of learning through physical activities designed to improve physical fitness, develop motor skills, knowledge and behavior of hale and sprightly living, sportsmanship, and emotional intelligence. Thus, Physical Education is not only aimed at physical development but also includes the development of the individual as a whole.2. Concepts of phy sical educationPhysical Development Objective deals with the program of activities that builds physical power in an individual through the development of the various constitutive(a) systems of the body. Motor Development Objective concerned with fashioning physical movement useful and with as little expenditure of energy as practicable and being proficient, graceful, and aesthetic in this movement. Mental Development Objective deals with the accruement a body knowledge and the ability to think and to interpret this knowledge. social Development Objective concerned with helping an individual in making personal adjustments, group adjustment, and adjustments as a member of society.3. What are the legal basis and related activities in physical education?The legal basis of physical education is stated in the 1987 Constitution, Article XIV percentage 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and tyro sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. (2) All educational institution shall undertake regular sports activities passim the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.

Labor Laws Essay

Short title, extent, commencement Definitions CHAPTER II Apprentices and their home manoeuvre 3. Qualifications for be act as an nailer 3-A. Reservation of reproduction places for the schedule Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in designated disdains. 4. Contract of prepareship 5. Novation of centre of prenticeship 6. Period of apprenticeship discipline 7. boundary of apprenticeship contain 8. Number of apprentices for a designated consider 9. Practical and fundamental development of apprentices 10. Related instruction of apprentices 11. stipulations of employers 1.The numeral came into force on March 1, 1962 vide psychogalvanic response 246, dated Feb. 12,1962 2. create in Gazette of India, Pt. II, S. 1, dated December 30,1964. 3. Published in Gazette of India, Pt. II, S. 1, dated May 24, 1968 and came into force on shocking 15,1968. 4. form 27 of 1973 came into force w. e. f. December 1, 1974 vide GSR 1293, dated November 1974 5. morsel 41 of 1986 came into fo rce w. e. f. December 16,1987 vide GSR 974(E), dated December 10, 1987 6. operate 4 of 1997 came into force w. e. f. January 8, 1997. 12. Obligations of apprentices 13. Payment to apprentices 14. Health, safety and welfare of apprentices.15. Hours of work, overtime, leave and holidays 16. Employers liability for compensation for injury 17. Conduct and discipline 18. Apprentices are conductees and non workers 19. Records and returns 20. Settlement of disputes 21. Holding of test and grant of certificate and conclusion of cooking 22. Offer and acceptance of employment CHAPTER III AUTHORITIES 23. Authorities 24. disposition of Councils 25. Vacancies not to invalidate acts and proceedings 26. Apprenticeship advisers 27. Deputy and Assistant Apprenticeship 28. Apprenticeship consultants to be prevalent servants 29.Powers of entry, inspection, etc. 30. Offences and penalties 31. Penalty where not specific penalty is provided 32. Offences by companies 33. intelligence of offence s 34. Delegation of powers 35. Construction of references 36. Protection of action taken in reliable faith 37. Power to make command 38 (Repealed) THE SCHEDULE An modus operandi to provide for the regulation and control of prep of apprentices and for 7 * * * matters connected therewith. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twelfth Year of the Re customary of India as follows Prefatory Note The dress was introduced in the form of a tirade on August 19,1961.For bring upment of Objects and Reasons, see Gazette of India, Extra. , Part II, instalment 2, dated August 19,1961. ________________________________________ 7. Omitted by perform 27 of 1973. CHAPTER I former 1. Short title, extent, commencement and application (1) (2) (3) (4) 2. This go whitethorn be c completelyed the Apprentices effect, 1961. It extends to the full-length of India. * * *8 It shall come into force on much(prenominal)(prenominal) date as the exchange organization whitethorn, by notification i n the appointed Gazette, appoint and diverse dates whitethorn be appointed for different terra firmas.The plannings of this map shall not apply to (a) whatever scope or to both manufacture in both area un slight the central presidency by notification in the formalised Gazette specifies that area or industry as an area or industry to which the said provisions shall apply with effect from much(prenominal) date as may be menti stard in the notification 9 (b) * * * 10 (c) whatsoever(prenominal) much(prenominal)(prenominal) special apprenticeship scheme for imparting rearing to apprentices as whatever be notified by the primordial giving medication in the Official Gazette.Definition In this turning, un little the context former(a)wise requires,11 (a) either India Council instrument the All India Council of practiced cultivation sink up by the resolution of the political science of India in the former Ministry of Education No. F. 16-10/44-E-III, dated th e 30th November, 1945) 12 (aa)apprentice direction a psyche who is downstairsgoing apprenticeship pedagogy 13* * * in pursuance of a promise of apprenticeship ____________________________________________ 8.Omitted by dissemble 25 of 1968. 9. Omitted by Act 27 of 1973. 10. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 11. The original article (a) re figure of speeched as article (aa) and a clause (a) inserted by Act 27 of 1973.12. The original clause (a) renumbered as clause (aa) and a clause (a) inserted by Act 27 of 1973. 13. Omitted by Act 27 of 1973 14 (aaa)apprenticeship procreation means a cable of development in whatever industry or physical composition chthonicg unrivaled in pursuance of a admit of apprenticeship and under official scathe and terminal figures which may be different for different categories of apprentices (b) Apprenticeship advisor means the exchange Apprenticeship advisor appointed under sub-section (1) of division 26 or the recite.Apprenticeship Adviser appoint ed under sub-section (2) of that section (c) Apprenticeship Council means the key Apprenticeship Council or the farming Apprenticeship Council conventional under sub-section (1) of Section 24 (d) prehend organization means (1) in coitus to (a) the Central Apprenticeship Council, or 15 (aa) the regional mounts, or (aaa) the realistic cookery of keep up or technician apprentices or of technician (vocational) apprentices, or (b) any establishment of any railway, major port, mine or oil athletic field, or (c) any establishment owned, controlled or managed by (i).The Central Government or a department of Central Government, (ii) a company in which not less than fifty-one per cent of the share capital is held by the Central Government on partly by that Government and partly by one or much adduce Governments, (iii) a corpo ration (including a co-operative society) found by or under a Central Act which is owned, controlled or managed by the Central Government (2) in congen ator to (a) a aver Apprenticeship Council, or (b) any establishment former(a) than an establishment contract in sub-clause (1) of this clause, the State Government 16 (dd).Board or State Council of Technical Education means the Board or State Council of Technical Education established by the State Government (e) designated quite a little 17means any softwood or occupation or any subject field in design or technology or any vocational take to the woods18 which the Central Government, afterwards book of facts with the Central Apprenticeship Council, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare as a designated cover for the purposes of this Act__________________________________________ 14. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 15. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973 and subs. by Act 41 of 1986, S. 2(w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 16. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 17. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 18. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986, S. 2 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987). (f) (g) (h) (i) 20 (j) (k) (l) employer means any person wh o employs one or more opposite persons to do any work in an establishment for remuneration and includes any person entrusted with the supervision and control of employees in much(prenominal)(prenominal) establishmentestablishment includes any place where any industry is carried on 19and where an establishment consists of different departments or have branches, whether situated in the same place or at different places, all such(prenominal) departments or branches shall be treat as part of the establishments establishment in private sector means an establishment which is not an establishment in public sector establishment in private sector means an establishment which is not led or managed by (1) the Government or a department of the Government (2)A Government company as defined in Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) (3) a corporation (including a co-operative society) established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, which is owned, controlled or manag ed by the Government (4) a local authority tweak or technician apprentice means an apprentice who holds, or is undergoing formulation in order that he may hold a degree or diploma in engineering or technology or resembling qualification granted by any establishment recognised by the Government and undergoes apprenticeship prep in any such subject field in engineering or technology as may be positive(p)industry means any industry or worry in which any trading, occupation or subject field in engineering or technology or any vocational course21 may be undertake as a designated trade subject area Council means the National Council for schooling in Vocational Trades established by the resolution of the Government of India in the Ministry of Labour (Directorate General of Resettlement and recitation ) No. TR/E. P. 24/56, dated the 21st August 1956 22 and re-named as the National Council for Vocational Training by the resolution of the Government of India in the Ministry of La bour (Directorate General of Employment and Training) No.DGET/12/21/80-TC, dated the 30th September, 1981 _________________________________________ 19. Ins. by Act 4 of 1997 20. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 21. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986, S. 2 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 22. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986, S. 2 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) (m) 23 confirming means prescribed by the rules made under this Act (mm)Regional Board means any board of Apprenticeship Training registered under the Societies adaption Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras or Kanpur (n) State includes a Union Territory (o)State Council means a State Council for Training in Vocational Trades established by the State Government (p) State Government in congener to a Union Territory, means the Administrator thereof 24 (pp) Technician (vocational) apprentice means an apprentice who holds or is undergoing training in order that he may hold a certificate in vocational course involving two years of study after the completion of the secondary detail of school education recognised by the All-India Council and undergoes apprenticeship training in such subject field in any vocational course as may be prescribed 25 (q) trade apprentice means an apprentice who undergoes apprenticeship training in any such trade or occupation as may be prescribed 26 (r) worker means any persons who is employed for wages in any manakin of work and who gets his wages directly from the employer but shall not include an apprentice referred to in clause(aa). ________________________________________ 23. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 24. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986, S. 2 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 25. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 26. Ins. by Act 4 of 1997. CHAPTER II APPRENTICES AND THEIR TRAINING 3.Qualifications for being pursue as an apprentice A person shall not be suffice for being restraind as an apprentice to undergo apprenticeship training in any designated trade, unless he(a) is not less than fourteen years of age, and (b) satisfies such st andards of education and physical fitness as may be prescribed Provided that different standards may be prescribed in relation to apprenticeship training in different designated trades 27and for different categories of apprentices. 28 3-A. Reservation of training places for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in designated trades (1).(2) in any designated trade, training places shall be reserved by the employer for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes 29 and where there is more than one designated trade in an establishment, such training places shall be reserved also on the basis of the total number of apprentices in all the designated trades in such establishment . the number of training places to be reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes under sub-section (1) shall be such as may be prescribed, having understand to the population of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the State concerned.Explanation- In this section, the expre ssions Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall have the meanings as in clauses (24) and (25) of Article 366 of the Constitution. 30 4. Contract of apprenticeship (1) No person shall be necessitated as an apprentice to undergo apprenticeship training in a designated trade unless such person or, if he is minor, his guardian has entered into a contract of apprenticeship with the employer. (2)The apprenticeship training shall be deemed to have commenced on the date on which the contract of apprenticeship has been entered into under sub-section (1). _________________________________________ 27. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 28. Ins. by Act 27 0f 1973. 29. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 30. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. (3) Every contract of apprenticeship may contain such terms and conditions as may be concur to by the parties to the contractProvided that no such term or condition shall be inconsistent with any provision of this Act or any rule made thereunder. (4) (5) (6) 5. Ev ery contract of apprenticeship entered into under sub-section (1) shall be sent by the employer within such menstruation as may be prescribed to the Apprenticeship Adviser for registration.The Apprenticeship Adviser shall not register a contract of apprenticeship unless he is satisfied that the person described as an apprentice in the contract is qualified under this Act for being engaged as an apprentice to undergo apprenticeship training in the designated trade undertake in the contract.Where the Central Government, after consulting the Central Apprenticeship Council, makes any rule alter the terms and conditions of apprenticeship training of any category of apprentices undergoing such training, then, the terms and conditions of every contract of apprenticeship relating to that category of apprentices and subsisting immediately before the devising of such rule shall be deemed to have been modified accordingly. Novation of contracts of apprenticeship Where an employer with whom a contract of apprenticeship has been entered into, is for any causation unable to fulfil his obligations under the contract and with the approval of the Apprenticeship Adviser it is agreed betwixt the employer, the apprentice or his guardian and any early(a) employer that the apprentice shall be engaged as apprentice under the otherwise employer for the un-expired serving of the peak of apprenticeship training, the agreement, on registration with the Apprenticeship.Adviser, shall be deemed to be the contract of apprenticeship between the apprentice or his guardian and other employer, and on and from the date of such registration, the contract of apprenticeship with the first employer shall terminate and no obligation under the contract shall be enforceable at the instance of any troupe to the contract against the other party thereto. 6.Period of apprenticeship training The period of apprenticeship training, which shall be specified in the contract of apprenticeship, sh all be as follows(a) In the elusion of 31trade apprentices who, having undergone institutional training in a school or other institution recognised by the National Council, have passed the trade tests 32or examinations conducted by 33 that Council or by an institution recognised by that Council, the period of apprenticeship training shall be such as may be laid by that Council _______________________________________ 31. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 32. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 33. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 34.(aa) in case of trade apprentices who, having undergone institutional training in a school or other institution consort to or recognised by a Board or State Council of Technical Education or any other authority which the Central Government may, by notification in the official gazette assert in this behalf, have passed the trade tests 35 or examinations conducted by that Board or State Council or authority, the period of apprenticeship training shall be such a s may be prescribed(b) in the case of other 36trade apprentices, the period of apprenticeship training shall be such as may be prescribed 37 (c) in the case of have or technician apprentices, technician (vocational) apprentices38 and the period of apprenticeship training shall be such as may be prescribed. 7. Termination of apprenticeship contract (1) The contract of apprenticeship shall terminate on the last of the period of apprenticeship training. (2)Either party to a contract of apprenticeship may make an application to the Apprenticeship Adviser for the passing of the contract, and when such application is made, shall send by post a transcript thereto to the other party to the contract. (3) After considering the contents of the application and the objections, if any, filed by the other party, the Apprenticeship Adviser may, by order in writing, terminate the contract, if he is satisfied that the parties to the contract or any of them have or has failed to strike out the ter ms and conditions of the contract and it is desirable in the interests of the parties or any of them to terminate the same 39.(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, where a contract of apprenticeship has been terminated by the Apprenticeship Adviser before the expiry of the period of apprenticeship training and a new contract of apprenticeship is being entered into with a employer, the Apprenticeship Adviser may, if he satisfied that the contract of apprenticeship with the previous employer could not be completed because of any lapse on the part of the previous employer, yield the period of apprenticeship training already undergone by the apprentice with his previous employer to be included in the period of apprenticeship training to be undertaken with the new employer. ____________________________________________ 34. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 35. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 36. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 37. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 38. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986. 39. Ins. by Act 4 of 1997. (a) (b) 8.Provided that where a contract is terminatedfor failure on the part of the employer to carry out the terms and conditions of the contract, the employer shall pay to the apprentice such compensation as may prescribed for such failure on the part of the apprentice, the apprentice or his guardian shall refund to the employer as monetary value of training such amount as may be falld by the Apprenticeship Adviser.Number of apprentices for a designated trade 40 (1) the Central Government shall, after consulting the Central Apprenticeship Council, by order notified in the Official Gazette, determine for each designated trade the ratio or trade apprentices to workers other than hopeless workers in that tradeProvided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall be deemed to prevent any employer from engaging a number of trade apprentices in excess of the ratio determined under this sub-section. (2) 3) in determining the ratio under sub-section (1), the Central Government shall have regard to the facilities available for apprenticeship training under this Act in the designated trade concerned as well as to the facilities that may have to be made available by an employer for the training of calibrate or technician apprentices technician (vocational) apprentices41, if any, in pursuance of any notice issued to him under sub-section (3-A) by the Central Apprenticeship Adviser or such other person as is referred to in that sub-section.the Apprenticeship Adviser may, by notice in writing, require an employer to engage such number of trade apprentices within the ratio determined by the Central Government for any designated trade in his establishment, to undergo apprenticeship training in that trade and the employer shall comply with such requisition Provided, that in making any requisition under this sub-section, the Apprenticeship Adviser shall have regard to the facilities very available in the establi shment concerned. _______________________________________________________ 40. 41. Sub-Sections (1), (2), (3) and (3-A), subs. by Act 27 of 1973 Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987).42 Provided further that the Apprenticeship Adviser may, on a representation made to him by an employer and keeping in view the more realistic employment potential, training facilities and other relevant factors, permit him to engage such a number of apprentices for a designated trade as is lesser than a number arrived at by the ratio for that trade, not being lesser than twenty per cent of the number so arrived at, subject to the condition that the employer shall engage apprentices in other trades in excess in number equivalent to such shortfall. (3-A) the Central Apprenticeship Adviser or any other person not infra the circle of an Assistant Apprenticeship Adviser authorised by the Central Apprenticeship Adviser in writing in this behalf shall, having regard to(i) the number of managerial persons (including technical and supervisory persons) employed in a designated trade (ii) the number of centering trainees engaged in the establishment (iii)The substance of the training facilities available in a designated trade and (iv) such other factors as he may consider fit in the mint of the case, by notice in writing, require an employer to impart training to such number of graduate or technician apprentices technician (vocational) apprentices43, in such trade in his establishment as may be specified in such notice and the employer shall comply with such requisition.Explanation In this sub-section the expression management trainee means a person who is engaged by an employer for undergoing a course of training in the establishment of the employer ( not being apprenticeship training under this Act) subject to the condition that on successful completion of such training, such person shall be employed by the employer on a fifty-fifty basis. (4) Several employers may j oin together for the purpose of providing hard-nosed training to the apprentices under them by moving them between their respective establishments. (5)Where, having regard to the public interest, a number of apprentices in excess of the ratio determined by the Central Government 44 or in excess of the number specified in a notice issued under sub-section (3-A) should, in the opinion of the appropriate Government be trained, the appropriate Government may require employers to train the special number of apprentices. (6)Every employer to whom such requisition as aforementioned(prenominal) is made, shall comply with the requisition if the Government concerned makes available such additional facilities and such additional financial assistance as are considered inevitable by the Apprenticeship Adviser for the training of the additional number of apprentices. __________________________________________ 42. Ins. by Act 4 of 1997. 43. Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 44. Ins. b y Act 27 of 1973. (7) 9. Any employer not satisfied with the decision of the Apprenticeship Adviser under sub-section (6), may make a reference to the Central Apprenticeship Council and such reference shall be decided by a Committee thereof appointed by that Council for the purpose and the decision of that Committee shall be final. Practical and basic training of apprentices(1) Every employer shall make suitable arrangements in his workshop for imparting a course of mulish training to every apprentice engaged by him in accordance with the programme sanction by the Apprenticeship Adviser. 45.(2) The Central Apprenticeship Adviser or any other person not below the rank of an Assistant Apprenticeship Adviser authorised by the State Apprenticeship Adviser in writing in this behalf shall be attached all reasonable facilities for get at to each such apprentice with a view to test his work and to ensure that the practical training is being imparted in accordance with the canonic progr ammeProvided that 46the State Apprenticeship Adviser or any other person not below the rank of an Apprenticeship Adviser authorised by the State Apprenticeship Adviser in writing in this behalf shall also be attached such facilities in respect of apprentices undergoing training in establishments in relation to which the appropriate Government is the State Government. 47.(3) Such of the trade apprentices as have got undergone institutional training in a school or other institution recognised by the National Council or any other institution affiliated to or recognised by a Board or State Council of Technical Education or any other authority which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, shall, before admission in the workshop for practical training, undergo a course of basic training. (3)Where an employer employs in his establishment fivesome ascorbic acid or more workers, the basic training shall be imparted to 48the trade appre ntices either in separate parts of the workshop building or in a separate building which shall be set up by the employer himself, but the appropriate Government may grant loans to the employer on easy terms and repayable by easy installments to meet the price of the land, construction and equipment for such separate building. __________________________________________ 45. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 46. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 47. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 48. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 49.(4-A)Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (4), if the number of apprentices to be trained at any time in any establishment in which five cytosine or more workers are employed, is less than twelve the employer in relation to such establishment may depute all or any of such apprentices to any Basic Training Centre or industrial Training Institute for basic training in any designated trade, in either case, run by the Government. (4-B).Where an employer deputes any apprentice under sub-sectio n (4-A), such employer shall pay to the Government the expenses incurred by the Government on such training, at such rate as may be specified by the Central Government . (5) Where an employer employs in his establishment less than five hundred workers, the basic training shall be imparted to 50the trade apprentices in training institutes set by the Government. (6).In any such training institute, which shall be fit(p) within the premises of the most suitable establishment in the neighbourhood or at any other convenient place 51 the trade apprenticesengaged by two or more employers may be imparted basic training. 52 (7) In case of an apprentice other than a graduate or technician apprentice, technician (vocational) apprentice53 the syllabus of, and the equipment to be utilised for, practical training including basic training shall be such as may be approved by the Central Government in consultation with the Central Apprenticeship Council.54 (7-A) In case of graduate or technician ap prentices technician (vocational) apprentices55 the programme of apprenticeship training and the facilities required for such training in any subject field in engineering or technology or vocational course56 shall be such as may be approved by the Central Government in consultation with the Central Apprenticeship Council. (8) (a) Recurring equals (including the cost of stipends) incurred by an employer in connector with 57basic training.58, imparted to trade apprentices other than those referred to in clauses (a) and (aa) of Section 6 shall be borne(i) If such employer employs 59two hundred and fifty workers or more, by the employer (ii) If such employer employs less than 60two hundred and fifty workers, by the employer and the Government in equal shares up to such limit as may be laid down by the Central Government and beyond that limit, by the employer alone and _______________________________________ 49. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 50. Act 27 of 1973. 51. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 52. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 53. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987). 54. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 55. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 56. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 ( w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 57. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 58. Subs. by Act 4 of 1997. 59. Subs. by Act 4 of 1997. 60. Subs. by Act 4 of 1997. (b) recurring cost (including the cost of stipends), if any, incurred by an employer in connection with 61practical training, including basic training, imparted to trade apprentices referred to in clauses (a) and (aa) of Section 6 shall, in every case, be borne by the employer. 62.(c) recurring costs (excluding the cost of stipends) incurred by an employer in connection with the practical training imparted to graduate or technician apprentices technician (vocational) apprentices63 shall be borne by the employer and the cost of stipends shall be borne by the Central Government and the employer in equal shares up to such limit as may be laid down by the Centr al Government and beyond that limit, by the employer alone. 10. Related instruction of apprentices(1) 64 A trade apprentice who is undergoing practical training in an establishment shall, during the period of practical training, be given a course of related instruction ( which shall be appropriate to the trade) approved by the Central Government in consultation with the Central Apprenticeship Council, with a view to giving 65the trade apprentice such theoretical knowledge as he needs in order to become fully qualified as a skilled craftsman. (2)Related instruction shall be imparted at the cost of the appropriate Government but the employer shall, when so required, afford all facilities for imparting such instruction. (3) Any time spend by 66a trade apprentice in go throughing classes on related instruction shall be treated as part of his paid period of work. 67 (4).In case of trade apprentices who, after having undergone a course of institutional training, have passed the trade tes ts conducted by the National Council or have passed the trade tests and examinations conducted by a Board or State Council of Technical Education or any other authority which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, the related instruction may be given on such reduced or modified weighing machine as may be prescribed. (5).Where any person has, during his course in technical institution, become a graduate or technician apprentice, 68technician (vocational) apprentice and during his apprenticeship training he has to receive related instruction, then, the employer shall release such person from practical training to receive the related instruction in such institution, for such period as may be specified by the Central Apprenticeship Adviser or by any other person not below the rank of an Assistant Apprenticeship Adviser authorised by the Central Apprenticeship Adviser in writing in this behalf. ______________________________________ ___ 61.Sub. by Act 27 of 1973. 62. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 63. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 ( w. e. f. 16-12-1987) 64. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 65. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 66. Subs. by Act 27 of 1973. 67. Ins. by Act 27 of 1973. 68. Ins. by Act 41 of 1986 (w. e. f. 16-12-1987).11. Obligation of employers Without prejudice to the other provisions of this Act, every employer shall have the following obligations in relation to an apprentice, namely(a) to provide the apprentice with the training in his trade in accordance with the provisions of this Act, and the rules made thereunder (b) if the employer is not himself qualified in the trade, to ensure that a person 69who possesses the prescribed qualifications is placed in get off of the training of the apprentice * * *70 71 (bb) to provide adequate instructional staff, possessing such qualifications as may be prescribed, for imparting practical and theoretical training and facilities for trade test of apprentices and (c) to carry out his obligations under the contract of apprenticeship. 12. Obligations of apprentices72 74 (1) 73 Every trade apprentice undergoing apprenticeship training shall have the following obligations, namely(a) to contemplate his trade conscientiously and diligently and endeavour to qualify himself as a skilled craftsman before the expiry of the period of training (b) to attend practical and instructional classes regularly (c) to carry out all legal orders of his employer and superiors in the establishments and (d) to carry out his obligations under the contract of apprenticeship. (2)Every graduate or technician apprentice technician (vocational) apprentice75 undergoing apprenticeship training shall have the following obligations namely(a) to learn his subject field in engineering or technology or vocational course76 conscientiously and diligently at his place of training (b) to attend the practical and instructional classes regularly (c) to carry out all lawful orders of his employer s and superiors in the establis.